SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
|£||REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013
|£||TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
|£||SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
Commission File No. 001-36203
Can-Fite BioPharma Ltd.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Can-Fite BioPharma Ltd., an Israeli Limited Company
(Translation of the Registrant’s name into English)
(Jurisdiction of incorporation)
10 Bareket Street, Kiryat Matalon, P.O. Box 7537, Petah-Tikva 4951778, Israel
(Address of principal executive offices)
Chief Operating and Financial Officer
Tel: +972 (3) 924-1114
Fax: +972 (3) 924-9378
10 Bareket Street, Kiryat Matalon, P.O. Box 7537, Petah-Tikva 4951778, Israel
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
|Title of each class||Name of each exchange on which|
|to be so registered||each class is to be registered|
|American Depositary Shares, each representing 2||NYSE MKT|
|Ordinary Shares, par value NIS 0.25 per share|
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report (December 31, 2013): 15,702,727 ordinary shares are outstanding (excluding 446,827 ordinary shares held as treasury shares).
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ¨ No x
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes ¨ No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such a shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ¨ No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of “accelerated filer and large accelerated filer” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one): Large accelerated filer ¨ Accelerated filer ¨ Non-accelerated filer x
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
|U.S. GAAP ¨||International Financial Reporting Standards||Other ¨|
|as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board x|
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the Registrant has elected to follow: Item 17 ¨ Item 18 ¨
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ¨ No x
TABLE OF CONTENTS
|ITEM 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers.||4|
|ITEM 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable.||4|
|ITEM 3. Key Information.||4|
|ITEM 4. Information on the Company||31|
|ITEM 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments||74|
|ITEM 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects||74|
|ITEM 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees||89|
|ITEM 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions||108|
|ITEM 8. Financial Information||109|
|ITEM 9. The Offer and Listing||110|
|ITEM 10. Additional Information||112|
|ITEM 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk||128|
|ITEM 12. Description of Securities Other Than Equity Securities||129|
|ITEM 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies||130|
|ITEM 14. Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds||130|
|ITEM 15. Controls and Procedures||130|
|ITEM 16. [RESERVED]||131|
|ITEM 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert||131|
|ITEM 16B. Code of Ethics||131|
|ITEM 16C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services||131|
|ITEM 16D. Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees||132|
|ITEM 16E. Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers||132|
|ITEM 16F. Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant||132|
|ITEM 16G. Corporate Governance||132|
|ITEM 16H. Mine Safety Disclosure||133|
|ITEM 17. Financial Statements||133|
|ITEM 18. Financial Statements||133|
|ITEM 19. Exhibits||133|
USE OF CERTAIN TERMS
In this Annual Report on Form 20-F, unless the context otherwise requires:
|·||references to “ADSs” refer to the Registrant’s American Depositary Shares;|
|·||references to “A3AR” refer to the A3 adenosine receptor;|
|·||references to the “Company,” “we,” “our” and “Can-fite” refer to Can-fite BioPharma Ltd. (the “Registrant”) and its consolidated subsidiaries;|
|·||references to the “Companies Law” or “Israeli Companies Law” are to Israel’s Companies Law, 5759-1999, as amended;|
|·||references to “dollars,” “U.S. dollars” and “$” are to United States Dollars;|
|·||references to “HCC” refer to hepatocellular carcinoma, also known as primary liver cancer;|
|·||references to “HCV” refer to hepatitis C virus;|
|·||references to “ordinary shares,” “our shares” and similar expressions refer to the Registrant’s Ordinary Shares, NIS 0.25 nominal (par) value per share;|
|·||references to “OA” refer to osteoarthritis;|
|·||references to “PBMC” refer to peripheral blood mononuclear cells;|
|·||references to “RA” refer to rheumatoid arthritis;|
|·||references to “Securities Law” or “Israeli Securities Law” are to Israel Securities Law, 5728-1968, as amended;|
|·||references to “shekels” and “NIS” are to New Israeli Shekels, the Israeli currency; and|
|·||references to the “SEC” are to the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.|
FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 20-F contains forward-looking statements, about our expectations, beliefs or intentions regarding, among other things, our product development efforts, business, financial condition, results of operations, strategies or prospects. In addition, from time to time, we or our representatives have made or may make forward-looking statements, orally or in writing. Forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking words such as “believe,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “may,” “should” or “anticipate” or their negatives or other variations of these words or other comparable words or by the fact that these statements do not relate strictly to historical or current matters. These forward-looking statements may be included in, but are not limited to, various filings made by us with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, press releases or oral statements made by or with the approval of one of our authorized executive officers. Forward-looking statements relate to anticipated or expected events, activities, trends or results as of the date they are made. Because forward-looking statements relate to matters that have not yet occurred, these statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from any future results expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Many factors could cause our actual activities or results to differ materially from the activities and results anticipated in forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to, the factors summarized below.
This Annual Report on Form 20-F identifies important factors which could cause our actual results to differ materially from those indicated by the forward-looking statements, particularly those set forth under the heading “Risk Factors.” The risk factors included in this Annual Report on Form 20-F are not necessarily all of the important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in any of our forward-looking statements. Given these uncertainties, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to:
|·||the initiation, timing, progress and results of our preclinical studies, clinical trials and other product candidate development efforts;|
|·||our ability to advance our product candidates into clinical trials or to successfully complete our preclinical studies or clinical trials;|
|·||our receipt of regulatory approvals for our product candidates, and the timing of other regulatory filings and approvals;|
|·||the clinical development, commercialization and market acceptance of our product candidates;|
|·||our ability to establish and maintain corporate collaborations;|
|·||the implementation of our business model and strategic plans for our business and product candidates;|
|·||the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering our product candidates and our ability to operate our business without infringing the intellectual property rights of others;|
|·||estimates of our expenses, future revenues, capital requirements and our needs for additional financing;|
|·||competitive companies, technologies and our industry; and|
|·||statements as to the impact of the political and security situation in Israel on our business.|
All forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 20-F and are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements included in this Annual Report on Form 20-F. We undertake no obligations to update or revise forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances that arise after the date made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. In evaluating forward-looking statements, you should consider these risks and uncertainties.
Market data and certain industry data and forecasts used throughout this Annual Report on Form 20-F were obtained from market research, publicly available information, reports of governmental agencies and industry publications and surveys. Industry surveys, publications, and forecasts generally state that the information contained therein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, but that the accuracy and completeness of such information is not guaranteed. We have not independently verified any of the data from third-party sources, nor have we ascertained the underlying economic assumptions relied upon therein. Similarly, industry forecasts and market research, which we believe to be reliable based upon our management’s knowledge of the industry, have not been independently verified. Forecasts are particularly likely to be inaccurate, especially over long periods of time. In addition, we do not necessarily know what assumptions regarding general economic growth were used in preparing the forecasts we cite. Statements as to our market position are based on the most currently available data. While we are not aware of any misstatements regarding the industry data presented in this Annual Report on Form 20-F, our estimates involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 20-F.
We effected a 1-for-25 reverse share split with respect to our ordinary shares, options and warrants on May 12, 2013. Unless indicated otherwise by the context, all ordinary share, option, warrant and per share amounts as well as stock prices appearing in this annual report have been adjusted to give retroactive effect to the share split for all periods presented.
ITEM 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers.
ITEM 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable.
ITEM 3. Key Information.
A. Selected Financial Data.
The following table sets forth our selected consolidated financial data for the periods ended and as of the dates indicated. The following selected consolidated financial data for our company should be read in conjunction with the financial information, “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and other information provided elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 20-F and our consolidated financial statements and related notes. The selected consolidated financial data in this section is not intended to replace the consolidated financial statements and is qualified in its entirety thereby.
The selected consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements set forth elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 20-F. The selected consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements not included in this Form 20-F.
Our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 20-F were prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, or IFRS, as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, and reported in Israeli New Shekels, or NIS.
|Consolidated Statements Of||Year Ended December 31,|
|(in thousands, except share and per share data)|
translation to US $
|Research and development, expenses net||13,841||9,993||12,969||13,160||15,390||4,434|
|General and administrative expenses||5,994||6,005||6,934||9,272||15,922||4,587|
|Other expense – due to M&A||-||-||11,496||-||-||-|
|Taxes on income||263||235||191||11||9||3|
|Adjustments arising from translating financial statements of foreign operations||-||-||(92||)||(7||)||206||59|
|Remeasurments of defined benefit plan||-||-||59||(42||)||49||14|
|Net loss per ordinary share||2.00||1.50||2.72||2.08||2.12||0.61|
|Number of ordinary shares used in computing loss per ordinary share||8,130,135||8,687,311||9,352,99||10,050,927||13,712,521||13,712,521|
|Consolidated Balance||As of December 31,|
|(in US $|
|Cash and cash equivalents||18,991||17,506||14,622||4,278||20,767||5,983|
|Other receivables and lease deposit||448||550||3,760||1,672||2,195||632|
|Total shareholders’ equity||13,486||13,072||12,527||(2,645||)||15,525||4,473|
We report our financial statements in NIS. This Annual Report on Form 20-F contains conversions of NIS amounts into U.S. dollars at specific rates solely for the convenience of the reader. Unless otherwise noted, for the purposes of annual financial data, all conversions from NIS to U.S. dollars and from U.S. dollars to NIS were made at a rate of 3.471 NIS to $1.00 U.S. dollar, the daily representative rates in effect as of December 31, 2013. No representation is made that the NIS amounts referred to in this Annual Report on Form 20-F could have been or could be converted into U.S. dollars at any particular rate or at all.
The following table sets forth information regarding the exchange rates of U.S. dollars per NIS for the periods indicated. Average rates are calculated by using the daily representative rates as reported by the Bank of Israel on the last day of each month during the periods presented.
|NIS per U.S. $|
|Year Ended December 31,||High||Low||Average||Period End|
The following table sets forth the high and low daily representative rates for the NIS as reported by the Bank of Israel for each of the prior six months.
|NIS per U.S. $|
|Month Ended||High||Low||Average||Period End|
|March 2014 (through March 26, 2014)||3.492||3.459||3.477||3.489|
On March 26, 2014, the closing representative rate was $1.00 to NIS 3.489, as reported by the Bank of Israel.
B. Capitalization and Indebtedness.
C. Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds.
D. Risk Factors
You should carefully consider the risks we describe below, in addition to the other information set forth elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 20-F, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes beginning on page F-1, before deciding to invest in our ordinary shares and ADSs. These material risks could adversely impact our results of operations, possibly causing the trading price of our ordinary shares and ADSs to decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment.
Risks Related to Our Financial Position and Capital Requirements
We have incurred operating losses since our inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur substantial operating losses for the foreseeable future.
We are a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company that develops orally bioavailable small molecule therapeutic products for the treatment of autoimmune-inflammatory, oncological and ophthalmic diseases. Since our incorporation in 1994, we have been focused on research and development activities with a view to developing our product candidates, CF101, CF102 and CF602. We have financed our operations primarily through the sale of equity securities (both in private placements and in public offerings on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange, or TASE) and payments received under out- licensing agreements and have incurred losses in each year since our inception in 1994. We have historically incurred substantial net losses, including net losses of approximately NIS 30.8 million in 2013, NIS 21.9 million in 2012 and NIS 28.4 million in 2011. At December 31, 2013, we had an accumulated deficit of approximately NIS 280.4 million. We do not know whether or when we will become profitable. To date, we have not commercialized any products or generated any revenues from product sales and accordingly we do not have a revenue stream to support our cost structure. Our losses have resulted principally from costs incurred in development and discovery activities. We expect to continue to incur losses for the foreseeable future, and these losses will likely increase as we:
|·||initiate and manage pre-clinical development and clinical trials for our current and new product candidates;|
|·||seek regulatory approvals for our product candidates;|
|·||implement internal systems and infrastructures;|
|·||seek to license additional technologies to develop;|
|·||hire management and other personnel; and|
|·||move towards commercialization.|
If our product candidates fail in clinical trials or do not gain regulatory clearance or approval, or if our product candidates do not achieve market acceptance, we may never become profitable. Even if we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. Our inability to achieve and then maintain profitability would negatively affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Moreover, our prospects must be considered in light of the risks and uncertainties encountered by an early-stage company and in highly regulated and competitive markets, such as the biopharmaceutical market, where regulatory approval and market acceptance of our products are uncertain. There can be no assurance that our efforts will ultimately be successful or result in revenues or profits.
We will need to raise additional capital to meet our business requirements in the future, and such capital raising may be costly or difficult to obtain and will dilute current shareholders’ ownership interests.
As of December 31, 2013, we had cash and cash equivalents of approximately $6 million. In March 2014, we closed a private placement of our ADSs for gross proceeds of approximately $5 million. We believe that our existing financial resources will be sufficient to meet our requirements for the next twelve months. We have expended and believe that we will continue to expend substantial resources for the foreseeable future developing our product candidates. These expenditures will include costs associated with research and development, manufacturing, conducting preclinical experiments and clinical trials and obtaining regulatory approvals, as well as commercializing any products approved for sale. Because the outcome of our planned and anticipated clinical trials is highly uncertain, we cannot reasonably estimate the actual amounts necessary to successfully complete the development and commercialization of our product candidates. In addition, other unanticipated costs may arise. As a result of these and other factors currently unknown to us, we will require additional funds, through public or private equity or debt financings or other sources, such as strategic partnerships and alliances and licensing arrangements. In addition, we may seek additional capital due to favorable market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans.
Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including the progress and results of our clinical trials, the duration and cost of discovery and preclinical development, and laboratory testing and clinical trials for our product candidates, the timing and outcome of regulatory review of our product candidates, the number and development requirements of other product candidates that we pursue, and the costs of activities, such as product marketing, sales, and distribution. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with the development and commercialization of our product candidates, we are unable to estimate the amounts of increased capital outlays and operating expenditures associated with our anticipated clinical trials.
Our future capital requirements depend on many factors, including:
|·||the failure to obtain regulatory approval or achieve commercial success of our product candidates, including CF101, CF102 and CF602;|
|·||the results of our preclinical studies and clinical trials for our earlier stage product candidates, and any decisions to initiate clinical trials if supported by the preclinical results;|
|·||the costs, timing and outcome of regulatory review of our product candidates that progress to clinical trials;|
|·||the costs of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, maintaining and enforcing our issued patents and defending intellectual property-related claims;|
|·||the cost of commercialization activities if any of our product candidates are approved for sale, including marketing, sales and distribution costs;|
|·||the cost of manufacturing our product candidates and any products we successfully commercialize;|
|·||the timing, receipt and amount of sales of, or royalties on, our future products, if any;|
|·||the expenses needed to attract and retain skilled personnel;|
|·||any product liability or other lawsuits related to our products;|
|·||the extent to which we acquire or invest in businesses, products or technologies and other strategic relationships; and|
|·||the costs of financing unanticipated working capital requirements and responding to competitive pressures.|
Additional funds may not be available when we need them, on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. If adequate funds are not available to us on a timely basis, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate preclinical studies, clinical trials or other research and development activities for one or more of our product candidates or delay, limit, reduce or terminate our establishment of sales and marketing capabilities or other activities that may be necessary to commercialize our product candidates.
We may incur substantial costs in pursuing future capital financing, including investment banking fees, legal fees, accounting fees, securities law compliance fees, printing and distribution expenses and other costs. We may also be required to recognize non-cash expenses in connection with certain securities we issue, such as convertible notes and warrants, which may adversely impact our financial condition.
Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our existing stockholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or product candidates.
We may seek additional capital through a combination of private and public equity offerings, debt financings, strategic partnerships and alliances and licensing arrangements. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the ownership interests of existing shareholders will be diluted, and the terms may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect shareholder rights. Debt financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take certain actions, such as incurring debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends. If we raise additional funds through strategic partnerships and alliances and licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies or product candidates, or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financing when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or commercialization efforts or grant rights to develop and market product candidates that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves.
If we fail to obtain necessary funds for our operations, we will be unable to maintain and improve our patented or licensed technology, and we will be unable to develop and commercialize our products and technologies.
Our present and future capital requirements depend on many factors, including:
|·||the level of research and development investment required to develop our product candidates, and maintain and improve our patented or licensed technology position;|
|·||the costs of obtaining or manufacturing product candidates for research and development and testing;|
|·||the results of preclinical and clinical testing, which can be unpredictable in product candidate development;|
|·||changes in product candidate development plans needed to address any difficulties that may arise in manufacturing, preclinical activities or clinical studies;|
|·||our ability and willingness to enter into new agreements with strategic partners and the terms of these agreements;|
|·||our success rate in preclinical and clinical efforts associated with milestones and royalties;|
|·||the costs of investigating patents that might block us from developing potential product candidates;|
|·||the costs of recruiting and retaining qualified personnel;|
|·||the time and costs involved in obtaining regulatory approvals;|
|·||the number of product candidates we pursue;|
|·||our revenues, if any;|
|·||the costs of filing, prosecuting, defending and enforcing patent claims and other intellectual property rights; and|
|·||our need or decision to acquire or license complementary technologies or new platform or product candidate targets.|
If we are unable to obtain the funds necessary for our operations, we will be unable to maintain and improve our patented technology, and we will be unable to develop and commercialize our products and technologies, which would materially and adversely affect our business, liquidity and results of operations.
Risks Related to our Business and Regulatory Matters
We have not yet commercialized any products or technologies, and we may never become profitable.
We have not yet commercialized any products or technologies, and we may never be able to do so. We do not know when or if we will complete any of our product development efforts, obtain regulatory approval for any product candidates incorporating our technologies or successfully commercialize any approved products. Even if we are successful in developing products that are approved for marketing, we will not be successful unless these products gain market acceptance for appropriate indications at favorable reimbursement rates. The degree of market acceptance of these products will depend on a number of factors, including:
|·||the timing of regulatory approvals in the countries, and for the uses, we seek;|
|·||the competitive environment;|
|·||the establishment and demonstration in the medical community of the safety and clinical efficacy of our products and their potential advantages over existing therapeutic products;|
|·||our ability to enter into strategic agreements with pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies with strong marketing and sales capabilities;|
|·||the adequacy and success of distribution, sales and marketing efforts; and|
|·||the pricing and reimbursement policies of government and third-party payors, such as insurance companies, health maintenance organizations and other plan administrators.|
Physicians, patients, thirty-party payors or the medical community in general may be unwilling to accept, utilize or recommend, and in the case of third-party payors, cover any of our products or products incorporating our technologies. As a result, we are unable to predict the extent of future losses or the time required to achieve profitability, if at all. Even if we successfully develop one or more products that incorporate our technologies, we may not become profitable.
Our product candidates are at various stages of clinical and preclinical development and may never be commercialized.
Our product candidates are at various stages of clinical development and may never be commercialized. The progress and results of any future pre-clinical testing or future clinical trials are uncertain, and the failure of our product candidates to receive regulatory approvals will have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition to the extent we are unable to commercialize any products. None of our product candidates has received regulatory approval for commercial sale. In addition, we face the risks of failure inherent in developing therapeutic products. Our product candidates are not expected to be commercially available for several years, if at all.
In addition, our product candidates must satisfy rigorous standards of safety and efficacy before they can be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, and foreign regulatory authorities for commercial use. The FDA and foreign regulatory authorities have full discretion over this approval process. We will need to conduct significant additional research, involving testing in animals and in humans, before we can file applications for product approval. Typically, in the pharmaceutical industry, there is a high rate of attrition for product candidates in pre-clinical testing and clinical trials. Also, satisfying regulatory requirements typically takes many years, is dependent upon the type, complexity and novelty of the product and requires the expenditure of substantial resources. In addition, delays or rejections may be encountered based upon additional government regulation, including any changes in FDA policy, during the process of product development, clinical trials and regulatory reviews.
In order to receive FDA approval or approval from foreign regulatory authorities to market a product candidate or to distribute our products, we must demonstrate thorough pre-clinical testing and thorough human clinical trials that the product candidate is safe and effective for its intended uses (e.g., treatment of a specific condition in a specific way subject to contradictions and other limitations). Even if we comply with all FDA requests, the FDA may ultimately reject one or more of our new drug applications, or NDA, or grant approval for a narrowly intended use that is not commercially feasible. We might not obtain regulatory approval for our drug candidates in a timely manner, if at all. Failure to obtain FDA approval of any of our drug candidates in a timely manner or at all will severely undermine our business by reducing the number of salable products and, therefore, corresponding product revenues.
Results of earlier clinical trials may not be predictive of the results of later-stage clinical trials.
The results of preclinical studies and early clinical trials of product candidates may not be predictive of the results of later-stage clinical trials. Product candidates in later stages of clinical trials may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy results despite having progressed through preclinical studies and initial clinical trials. For example, in December 2013, OphthaliX, Inc., or Ophthalix, our subsidiary, announced top-line results of a Phase III study with CF 101 for dry-eye syndrome in which CF101 did not meet the primary efficacy endpoint of complete clearing of corneal staining, nor the secondary efficacy endpoints. In addition, two Phase IIb studies in rheumatoid arthritis, or RA, utilizing CF101 in combination with methotrexate, a generic drug commonly used for treating RA patients, or MTX, failed to reach their primary end points. Many companies in the pharmaceutical industry have suffered significant setbacks in advanced clinical trials due to adverse safety profiles or lack of efficacy, notwithstanding promising results in earlier studies. Any delay in, or termination or suspension of, our clinical trials will delay the requisite filings with the FDA and, ultimately, our ability to commercialize our product candidates and generate product revenues. If the clinical trials do not support our product claims, the completion of development of such product candidates may be significantly delayed or abandoned, which will significantly impair our ability to generate product revenues and will materially adversely affect our results of operations.
This drug candidate development risk is heightened by any changes in the planned clinical trials compared to the completed clinical trials. As product candidates are developed from preclinical through early to late stage clinical trials towards approval and commercialization, it is customary that various aspects of the development program, such as manufacturing and methods of administration, are altered along the way in an effort to optimize processes and results. While these types of changes are common and are intended to optimize the product candidates for late stage clinical trials, approval and commercialization, such changes do carry the risk that they will not achieve these intended objectives.
Changes in our planned clinical trials or future clinical trials could cause our product candidates to perform differently, including causing toxicities, which could delay completion of our clinical trials, delay approval of our product candidates, and/or jeopardize our ability to commence product sales and generate revenues.
We might be unable to develop product candidates that will achieve commercial success in a timely and cost-effective manner, or ever.
Even if regulatory authorities approve our product candidates, they may not be commercially successful. Our product candidates may not be commercially successful because government agencies and other third-party payors may not cover the product or the coverage may be too limited to be commercially successful; physicians and others may not use or recommend our products, even following regulatory approval. A product approval, assuming one issues, may limit the uses for which the product may be distributed thereby adversely affecting the commercial viability of the product. Third parties may develop superior products or have proprietary rights that preclude us from marketing our products. We also expect that at least some of our product candidates will be expensive, if approved. Patient acceptance of and demand for any product candidates for which we obtain regulatory approval or license will depend largely on many factors, including but not limited to the extent, if any, of reimbursement of costs by government agencies and other third-party payors, pricing, the effectiveness of our marketing and distribution efforts, the safety and effectiveness of alternative products, and the prevalence and severity of side effects associated with our products. If physicians, government agencies and other third-party payors do not accept our products, we will not be able to generate significant revenue.
Our current pipeline is based on our platform technology utilizing the Gi protein associated A3 adenosine receptor, or A3AR, as a potent therapeutic target and currently includes three molecules, the CF101, CF102 and CF602 product candidates, of which CF 101 is the most advanced. Failure to develop these molecules will have a material adverse effect on us.
Our current pipeline is based on a platform technology where we target the A3AR with highly selective ligands, or small signal triggering molecules that bind to specific cell surface receptors, such as the A3AR, including CF101, CF102 and CF602, currently developed for the treatment of autoimmune-inflammatory, oncological and ophthalmic disorders. A3ARs are structures found in cell surfaces that record and transfer messages from small molecules or ligands, such as CF101, CF102 and CF602 to the rest of the cell. CF101 is the most advanced of our drug candidates. As such, we are currently dependent on only three molecules for our potential commercial success, and any safety or efficacy concerns related to such molecules would have a significant impact on our business. Failure to develop our drug candidates, in whole or in part, will have a material adverse effect on us.
Clinical trials are very expensive, time-consuming and difficult to design and implement, and, as a result, we may suffer delays or suspensions in future trials which would have a material adverse effect on our ability to generate revenues.
Human clinical trials are very expensive and difficult to design and implement, in part because they are subject to rigorous regulatory requirements. Regulatory authorities, such as the FDA, may preclude clinical trials from proceeding. Additionally, the clinical trial process is time-consuming, failure can occur at any stage of the trials, and we may encounter problems that cause us to abandon or repeat clinical trials. The commencement and completion of clinical trials may be delayed by several factors, including:
|·||unforeseen safety issues;|
|·||determination of dosing issues;|
|·||lack of effectiveness or efficacy during clinical trials;|
|·||failure of third party suppliers to perform final manufacturing steps for the drug substance;|
|·||slower than expected rates of patient recruitment and enrollment;|
|·||lack of healthy volunteers and patients to conduct trials;|
|·||inability to monitor patients adequately during or after treatment;|
|·||failure of third party contract research organizations to properly implement or monitor the clinical trial protocols;|
|·||failure of institutional review boards to approve our clinical trial protocols;|
|·||inability or unwillingness of medical investigators and institutional review boards to follow our clinical trial protocols; and|
|·||lack of sufficient funding to finance the clinical trials.|
We have experienced the risks involved with conducting clinical trials, including but not limited to, increased expense and delay and failure to meet end points of the trial. For example, in December 2013, Ophthalix, our subsidiary, announced top-line results of a Phase III study with CF 101 for dry-eye syndrome in which CF101 did not meet the primary efficacy endpoint of complete clearing of corneal staining, nor the secondary efficacy endpoints. In addition, two Phase IIb studies in RA, utilizing CF101 in combination with methotrexate, a generic drug commonly used for treating RA patients, or MTX, failed to reach their primary end points.
In addition, we or regulatory authorities may suspend our clinical trials at any time if it appears that we are exposing participants to unacceptable health risks or if the regulatory authorities find deficiencies in our regulatory submissions or the conduct of these trials. Any suspension of clinical trials will delay possible regulatory approval, if any, and adversely impact our ability to develop products and generate revenue.
If we acquire or license additional technology or product candidates, we may incur a number of costs, may have integration difficulties and may experience other risks that could harm our business and results of operations.
We may acquire and license additional product candidates and technologies. Any product candidate or technology we license from others or acquire will likely require additional development efforts prior to commercial sale, including extensive pre-clinical or clinical testing, or both, and approval by the FDA and applicable foreign regulatory authorities, if any. All product candidates are prone to risks of failure inherent in pharmaceutical product development, including the possibility that the product candidate or product developed based on licensed technology will not be shown to be sufficiently safe and effective for approval by regulatory authorities. In addition, we cannot assure you that any product candidate that we develop based on acquired or licensed technology that is granted regulatory approval will be manufactured or produced economically, successfully commercialized or widely accepted in the marketplace. Moreover, integrating any newly acquired product candidates could be expensive and time-consuming. If we cannot effectively manage these aspects of our business strategy, our business may not succeed.
The manufacture of our product candidates is a chemical synthesis process and if one of our materials suppliers encounters problems manufacturing our products, our business could suffer.
The FDA and foreign regulators require manufacturers to register manufacturing facilities. The FDA and foreign regulators also inspect these facilities to confirm compliance with requirements that the FDA or foreign regulators establish. We do not intend to engage in the manufacture of our products other than for pre-clinical and clinical studies, but we or our materials suppliers may face manufacturing or quality control problems causing product production and shipment delays or a situation where we or the supplier may not be able to maintain compliance with the FDA’s or foreign regulators’ requirements necessary to continue manufacturing our drug substance. Drug manufacturers are subject to ongoing periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency, or DEA, and corresponding foreign regulators to ensure strict compliance with requirements and other governmental regulations and corresponding foreign standards. Any failure to comply with DEA requirements or FDA or foreign regulatory requirements could adversely affect our clinical research activities and our ability to market and develop our product candidates.
We do not currently have sales, marketing or distribution capabilities or experience, and we are unable to effectively sell, market or distribute our product candidates now and we do not expect to be able to do so in the future. The failure to enter into agreements with third parties that are capable of performing these functions would have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
We do not currently have and we do not expect to develop sales, marketing and distribution capabilities. If we are unable to enter into agreements with third parties to perform these functions, we will not be able to successfully market any of our platforms or product candidates. In order to successfully market any of our platform or product candidates, we must make arrangements with third parties to perform these services.
As we do not intend to develop a marketing and sales force with technical expertise and supporting distribution capabilities, we will be unable to market any of our product candidates directly. To promote any of our potential products through third parties, we will have to locate acceptable third parties for these functions and enter into agreements with them on acceptable terms, and we may not be able to do so. Any third-party arrangements we are able to enter into may result in lower revenues than we could achieve by directly marketing and selling our potential products. In addition, to the extent that we depend on third parties for marketing and distribution, any revenues we receive will depend upon the efforts of such third parties, as well as the terms of our agreements with such third parties, which cannot be predicted in most cases at this time. As a result, we might not be able to market and sell our products in the United States or overseas, which would have a material adverse effect on us.
We will to some extent rely on third parties to implement our manufacturing and supply strategies. Failure of these third parties in any respect could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
If our current and future manufacturing and supply strategies are unsuccessful, then we may be unable to conduct and complete any future pre-clinical or clinical trials or commercialize our product candidates in a timely manner, if at all. Completion of any potential future pre-clinical or clinical trials and commercialization of our product candidates will require access to, or development of, facilities to manufacture a sufficient supply of our product candidates. We do not have the resources, facilities or experience to manufacture our product candidates for commercial purposes on our own and do not intend to develop or acquire facilities for the manufacture of product candidates for commercial purposes in the foreseeable future. We may rely on contract manufacturers to produce sufficient quantities of our product candidates necessary for any pre-clinical or clinical testing we undertake in the future. Such contract manufacturers may be the sole source of production and they may have limited experience at manufacturing, formulating, analyzing, filling and finishing our types of product candidates.
We also intend to rely on third parties to supply the requisite materials needed for the manufacturing of our active pharmaceutical ingredients, or API. There may be a limited supply of these requisite materials. We might not be able to enter into agreements that provide us assurance of availability of such components in the future from any supplier. Our potential suppliers may not be able to adequately supply us with the components necessary to successfully conduct our pre-clinical and clinical trials or to commercialize our product candidates. If we cannot acquire an acceptable supply of the requisite materials to produce our product candidates, we will not be able to complete pre-clinical and clinical trials and will not be able to market or commercialize our product candidates.
We depend on key members of our management and key consultants and will need to add and retain additional leading experts. Failure to retain our management and consulting team and add additional leading experts could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition.
We are highly dependent on our executive officers and other key management and technical personnel. Our failure to retain our Chief Executive Officer, Pnina Fishman, Ph.D., who has developed much of the technology we utilize today, or any other key management and technical personnel, could have a material adverse effect on our future operations. Our success is also dependent on our ability to attract, retain and motivate highly trained technical, and management personnel, among others, to continue the development and commercialization of our current and future products. We presently maintain a life insurance policy on our Chief Executive Officer, Pnina Fishman.
Our success also depends on our ability to attract, retain and motivate personnel required for the development, maintenance and expansion of our activities. There can be no assurance that we will be able to retain our existing personnel or attract additional qualified employees or consultants. The loss of key personnel or the inability to hire and retain additional qualified personnel in the future could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operation.
We face significant competition and continuous technological change, and developments by competitors may render our products or technologies obsolete or non-competitive. If we cannot successfully compete with new or existing products, our marketing and sales will suffer and we may not ever be profitable.
We will compete against fully integrated pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and smaller companies that are collaborating with larger pharmaceutical companies, academic institutions, government agencies and other public and private research organizations. In addition, many of these competitors, either alone or together with their collaborative partners, operate larger research and development programs than we do, and have substantially greater financial resources than we do, as well as significantly greater experience in:
|·||undertaking pre-clinical testing and human clinical trials;|
|·||obtaining FDA, addressing various regulatory matters and other regulatory approvals of drugs;|
|·||formulating and manufacturing drugs; and|
|·||launching, marketing and selling drugs.|
If our competitors develop and commercialize products faster than we do, or develop and commercialize products that are superior to our product candidates, our commercial opportunities will be reduced or eliminated. The extent to which any of our product candidates achieve market acceptance will depend on competitive factors, many of which are beyond our control. Competition in the biotechnology and biopharmaceutical industry is intense and has been accentuated by the rapid pace of technology development. Our competitors include large integrated pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies that currently have drug and target discovery efforts, universities, and public and private research institutions. Almost all of these entities have substantially greater research and development capabilities and financial, scientific, manufacturing, marketing and sales resources than we do. These organizations also compete with us to:
|·||attract parties for acquisitions, joint ventures or other collaborations;|
|·||license proprietary technology that is competitive with the technology we are developing;|
|·||attract funding; and|
|·||attract and hire scientific talent and other qualified personnel.|
Our competitors may succeed in developing and commercializing products earlier and obtaining regulatory approvals from the FDA more rapidly than we do. Our competitors may also develop products or technologies that are superior to those we are developing, and render our product candidates or technologies obsolete or non-competitive. If we cannot successfully compete with new or existing products, our marketing and sales will suffer and we may not ever be profitable.
Our competitors currently include companies with marketed products and/or an advanced research and development pipeline. The major competitors in the arthritis and psoriasis therapeutic field include Abbott Laboratories, Johnson & Johnson, Amgen, Roche, Pfizer, Novartis, Astellas, Eli Lilly and more. The competitive landscape in the ophthalmic therapeutics field includes Novartis/Alcon, Allergan, Pfizer, Roche/Genentech, Merck (which acquired Inspire Pharmaceuticals), Santen (which acquired Novagali), Bausch & Lomb (which acquired ISTA Pharmaceuticals and is currently being acquired by Valeant), GlaxoSmithKline, or GSK, Sanofi-Aventis (which acquired Fovea) and more. Competitors in the hepatocellular carcinoma, also known as primary liver cancer, or HCC field include companies such as Onyx, Bayer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Abbott Laboratories, Eli Lilly, Arqule and more. Competitors in the hepatitis C virus, or HCV, field include companies such as Merck, Vertex, Roche, Bristol-Myers Squibb (which acquired Inhibitex), Gilead Sciences (which acquired Pharmasset), Achillion, Idenix, Valeant, Human Genome Sciences, Abbott Laboratories, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Novartis, Pfizer, Idenix, Johnson & Johnson, Presidio, Medivir, Celgene, Enanta, GSK and more. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Competition.”
Moreover, several companies have reported the commencement of research projects related to the A3AR. Such companies include CV Therapeutics Inc. (which was acquired by Gilead), King Pharmaceuticals R&D Inv. (which was acquired by Merck), Hoechst Marion Roussel Inc., Novo Nordisk A/S and Inotek Pharmaceuticals. However, we are not aware if such projects are ongoing or have been completed and, to the best of our knowledge, there is no approved drug currently on the market which is similar to our A3AR agonists, nor are we aware of any allosteric modulator in the A3AR product pipeline similar to our allosteric modulator with respect to chemical profile and mechanism of action.
We may suffer losses from product liability claims if our product candidates cause harm to patients.
Any of our product candidates could cause adverse events. Although data from a pooled analysis of 730 patients (527 CF101, 203 placebo) indicates that CF101 is safe and well tolerated at doses up to 4.0 mg administered twice daily for up to 12 weeks, there were incidences (albeit less than or equal to 5%) of adverse events in five completed and fully analyzed trials in inflammatory disease. Such adverse events included nausea, diarrhea, constipation, common and viral syndromes (such as, tonsillitis, otitis and respiratory and urinary tract infections, myalgia, arthralgia, dizziness, headache, palpitations and pruritus. We observed an even lower incidence (less than or equal to 2%) of serious adverse events, including pancytopenia (although extensive evaluation suggests that such adverse event was associated with an inadvertent overdose of MTX), exacerbation of chronic obstructive lung disease and exacerbation of Parkinson’s Disease. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the placebo group in such studies had a higher incidence of overall adverse events than any CF101 dose group and a higher incidence of drug-related adverse events than any CF101 dose group (with the exception of the 1.0 mg group). Safety data from 652 additional subjects treated with CF101 in 3 subsequent Phase II and Phase III trials are consistent with data from previous trials in showing a low incidence of adverse events associated with CF101 treatment, an absence of apparent dose-response of CF101-associated adverse events and incidences of most adverse events in the CF101 groups comparable to those in the placebo group. No new safety concerns have been identified and no novel or unexpected safety concerns have appeared over 24 weeks of treatment in more recent trials. In a trial of 19 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma dosed with CF102 for a median of 190 days, CF102 was generally well-tolerated. The most common CF102-related adverse events were fatigue (5 patients, 26.3%), asthenia and decreased appetite (4 patients each, 21.1%), and pyrexia and constipation (3 patients each, 15.8%).
There is also a risk that certain adverse events may not be observed in clinical trials, but may nonetheless occur in the future. If any of these adverse events occur, they may render our product candidates ineffective or harmful in some patients, and our sales would suffer, materially adversely affecting our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, potential adverse events caused by our product candidates could lead to product liability lawsuits. If product liability lawsuits are successfully brought against us, we may incur substantial liabilities and may be required to limit the marketing and commercialization of our product candidates. Our business exposes us to potential product liability risks, which are inherent in the testing, manufacturing, marketing and sale of pharmaceutical products. We may not be able to avoid product liability claims. Product liability insurance for the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries is generally expensive, if available at all. If, at any time, we are unable to obtain sufficient insurance coverage on reasonable terms or to otherwise protect against potential product liability claims, we may be unable to clinically test, market or commercialize our product candidates. A successful product liability claim brought against us in excess of our insurance coverage, if any, may cause us to incur substantial liabilities, and, as a result, our business, liquidity and results of operations would be materially adversely affected.
Our product candidates will remain subject to ongoing regulatory requirements even if they receive marketing approval, and if we fail to comply with these requirements, we could lose these approvals, and the sales of any approved commercial products could be suspended.
Even if we receive regulatory approval to market a particular product candidate, the product will remain subject to extensive regulatory requirements, including requirements relating to manufacturing, labeling, packaging, adverse event reporting, storage, advertising, promotion, distribution and recordkeeping. Even if regulatory approval of a product is granted, the approval may be subject to limitations on the uses for which the product may be marketed or the conditions of approval, or may contain requirements for costly post-marketing testing and surveillance to monitor the safety or efficacy of the product, which could negatively impact us or our collaboration partners by reducing revenues or increasing expenses, and cause the approved product candidate not to be commercially viable. In addition, as clinical experience with a drug expands after approval, typically because it is used by a greater number and more diverse group of patients after approval than during clinical trials, side effects and other problems may be observed after approval that were not seen or anticipated during pre-approval clinical trials or other studies. Any adverse effects observed after the approval and marketing of a product candidate could result in limitations on the use of or withdrawal of any approved products from the marketplace. Absence of long-term safety data may also limit the approved uses of our products, if any. If we fail to comply with the regulatory requirements of the FDA and other applicable U.S. and foreign regulatory authorities, or previously unknown problems with any approved commercial products, manufacturers or manufacturing processes are discovered, we could be subject to administrative or judicially imposed sanctions or other setbacks, including the following:
|·||Restrictions on the products, manufacturers or manufacturing process;|
|·||Civil or criminal penalties, fines and injunctions;|
|·||Product seizures or detentions;|
|·||Import or export bans or restrictions;|
|·||Voluntary or mandatory product recalls and related publicity requirements;|
|·||Suspension or withdrawal of regulatory approvals;|
|·||Total or partial suspension of production, and|
|·||Refusal to approve pending applications for marketing approval of new products or supplements to approved applications.|
If we or our collaborators are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing regulatory requirements or adoption of new regulatory requirements or policies, marketing approval for our product candidates may be lost or cease to be achievable, resulting in decreased revenue from milestones, product sales or royalties, which would have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
We deal with hazardous materials and must comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, which can be expensive and restrict how we do business.
Our activities and those of our third-party manufacturers on our behalf involve the controlled storage, use and disposal of hazardous materials, including corrosive, explosive and flammable chemicals and other hazardous compounds. We and our manufacturers are subject to U.S. federal, state, local, Israeli and other foreign laws and regulations governing the use, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of these hazardous materials. Although we believe that our safety procedures for handling and disposing of these materials comply with the standards prescribed by these laws and regulations, we cannot eliminate the risk of accidental contamination or injury from these materials. In addition, if we develop a manufacturing capacity, we may incur substantial costs to comply with environmental regulations and would be subject to the risk of accidental contamination or injury from the use of hazardous materials in our manufacturing process.
In the event of an accident, government authorities may curtail our use of these materials and interrupt our business operations. In addition, we could be liable for any civil damages that result, which may exceed our financial resources and may seriously harm our business. Although our Israeli insurance program covers certain unforeseen sudden pollutions, we do not maintain a separate insurance policy for any of the foregoing types of risks. In addition, although the general liability section of our life sciences policy covers certain unforeseen, sudden environmental issues, pollution in the United States and Canada is excluded from the policy. In the event of environmental discharge or contamination or an accident, we may be held liable for any resulting damages, and any liability could exceed our resources. In addition, we may be subject to liability and may be required to comply with new or existing environmental laws regulating pharmaceuticals or other medical products in the environment.
We may not be able to successfully grow and expand our business. Failure to manage our growth effectively will have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We may not be able to successfully grow and expand. Successful implementation of our business plan will require management of growth, which will result in an increase in the level of responsibility for management personnel. To manage growth effectively, we will be required to continue to implement and improve our operating and financial systems and controls to expand, train and manage our employee base. The management, systems and controls currently in place or to be implemented may not be adequate for such growth, and the steps taken to hire personnel and to improve such systems and controls might not be sufficient. If we are unable to manage our growth effectively, it will have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We may encounter difficulties in managing our growth. These difficulties could increase our losses.
We may experience rapid and substantial growth in order to achieve our operating plans, which will place a strain on our human and capital resources. If we are unable to manage this growth effectively, our losses could materially increase. Our ability to manage our operations and growth effectively requires us to continue to expend funds to enhance our operational, financial and management controls, reporting systems and procedures and to attract and retain sufficient numbers of talented employees. If we are unable to scale up and implement improvements to our control systems in an efficient or timely manner, or if we encounter deficiencies in existing systems and controls, then we will not be able to make available the products required to successfully commercialize our technology. Failure to attract and retain sufficient numbers of talented employees will further strain our human resources and could impede our growth or result in ineffective growth.
Our ability to effectively recruit and retain qualified officers and directors could also be adversely affected if we experience difficulty in obtaining adequate directors’ and officers’ liability insurance.
We may be unable to maintain sufficient insurance as a public company to cover liability claims made against our officers and directors. If we are unable to adequately insure our officers and directors, we may not be able to retain or recruit qualified officers and directors to manage our company.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
We license from the National Institute of Health, or the NIH, and Leiden University intellectual property which protects certain small molecules which target the A3AR, in furtherance of our platform technology, and we could lose our rights to these licenses if a dispute with the NIH or Leiden University arises or if we fail to comply with the financial and other terms of the licenses.
We have licensed intellectual property from the NIH and Leiden University pursuant to license agreements, or the License Agreements, relating to molecules which target the A3AR. The License Agreements impose certain payment, reporting, confidentiality and other obligations on us. In the event that we were to breach any of the obligations and fail to cure, the NIH and Leiden University would have the right to terminate the respective License Agreement. In addition, the NIH and Leiden University each have the right to terminate the respective License Agreement upon our bankruptcy, insolvency, or receivership. Further, the NIH retains a paid-up, worldwide license to practice the licensed inventions for government purposes and may require us to grant sublicenses when necessary to fulfill health or safety needs and retains “march-in” rights, i.e., the right to terminate the license, if, among other things, the invention is needed for a public use such as addressing a public health crisis or the licensee or sublicensee fails to take within a reasonable time to take effective steps to achieve practical application of the licensed invention. If any dispute arises with respect to our arrangements with the NIH and Leiden University, such dispute may disrupt our operations and would likely have a material adverse impact on us if resolved in a manner that is unfavorable to our Company. All of our current product candidates are partly based on the intellectual property licensed under the License Agreements, and if the License Agreements were terminated, it would have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects and results of operations.
The failure to obtain or maintain patents, licensing agreements, including our current licensing agreements, and other intellectual property could impact our ability to compete effectively.
To compete effectively, we need to develop and maintain a proprietary position with regard to our own technologies, intellectual property, licensing agreements, product candidates and business. Legal standards relating to the validity and scope of claims in the biotechnology and biopharmaceutical fields are still evolving. Therefore, the degree of future protection for our proprietary rights in our core technologies and any products that might be made using these technologies is also uncertain. The risks and uncertainties that we face with respect to our patents and other proprietary rights include the following:
|·||while the patents we license have been issued, the pending patent applications we have filed may not result in issued patents or may take longer than we expect to result in issued patents;|
|·||we may be subject to interference proceedings;|
|·||we may be subject to opposition proceedings in foreign countries;|
|·||any patents that are issued may not provide meaningful protection;|
|·||we may not be able to develop additional proprietary technologies that are patentable;|
|·||other companies may challenge patents licensed or issued to us or our customers;|
|·||other companies may independently develop similar or alternative technologies, or duplicate our technologies;|
|·||other companies may design around technologies we have licensed or developed; and|
|·||enforcement of patents is complex, uncertain and expensive.|
We cannot be certain that patents will be issued as a result of any of our pending applications, and we cannot be certain that any of our issued patents, whether issued pursuant to our pending applications or licensed from the NIH and Leiden University, will give us adequate protection from competing products. For example, issued patents, including the patents licensed from the NIH and Leiden University, may be circumvented or challenged, declared invalid or unenforceable, or narrowed in scope. In addition, since publication of discoveries in the scientific or patent literature often lags behind actual discoveries, we cannot be certain that we were the first to make our inventions or to file patent applications covering those inventions.
Moreover, the composition of matter patents pertaining to CF101 and CF102 that we licensed from the NIH will expire on July 13, 2014 in Europe and on June 30, 2015 in the United States. As of June 30, 2015, the License Agreement with the NIH will terminate. We do not expect that we will be able to submit an NDA seeking approval of CF101 or CF102 prior to the composition of matter patents’ respective expiration dates. However, because CF101 and CF102 each may be a new chemical entity, or NCE, following approval of an NDA, we, if we are the first applicant to obtain NDA approval, may be entitled to five years of data and market exclusivity in the United States with respect to such NCEs. Analogous data and market exclusivity provisions, of varying duration, may be available in Europe and other foreign jurisdictions. We also have rights under our pharmaceutical use issued patents with respect to CF101 and CF102, which provide patent exclusivity within our field of activity until the mid- to late-2020s. While we believe that we may be able to protect our exclusivity in our field of activity through such use patent portfolio and such period of exclusivity, the lack of composition of matter patent protection may diminish our ability to maintain a proprietary position for our intended uses of CF101 and CF102. Moreover, we cannot be certain that we will be the first applicant to obtain an FDA approval for any indication of CF101 and we cannot be certain that we will be entitled to NCE exclusivity. Such diminution of our proprietary position could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operation and financial condition.
It is also possible that others may obtain issued patents that could prevent us from commercializing our products or require us to obtain licenses requiring the payment of significant fees or royalties in order to enable us to conduct our business. As to those patents that we have licensed, our rights depend on maintaining our obligations to the licensor under the applicable license agreement, and we may be unable to do so.
In addition to patents and patent applications, we depend upon trade secrets and proprietary know-how to protect our proprietary technology. We require our employees, consultants, advisors and collaborators to enter into confidentiality agreements that prohibit the disclosure of confidential information to any other parties. We require our employees and consultants to disclose and assign to us their ideas, developments, discoveries and inventions. These agreements may not, however, provide adequate protection for our trade secrets, know-how or other proprietary information in the event of any unauthorized use or disclosure.
Costly litigation may be necessary to protect our intellectual property rights and we may be subject to claims alleging the violation of the intellectual property rights of others.
We may face significant expense and liability as a result of litigation or other proceedings relating to patents and other intellectual property rights of others. In the event that another party has also filed a patent application or been issued a patent relating to an invention or technology claimed by us in pending applications, we may be required to participate in an interference proceeding declared by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office to determine priority of invention, which could result in substantial uncertainties and costs for us, even if the eventual outcome were favorable to us. We, or our licensors, also could be required to participate in interference proceedings involving issued patents and pending applications of another entity. An adverse outcome in an interference proceeding could require us to cease using the technology or to license rights from prevailing third parties.
The cost to us of any patent litigation or other proceeding relating to our licensed patents or patent applications, even if resolved in our favor, could be substantial. Our ability to enforce our patent protection could be limited by our financial resources, and may be subject to lengthy delays. If we are unable to effectively enforce our proprietary rights, or if we are found to infringe the rights of others, we may be in breach of our License Agreement.
A third party may claim that we are using inventions claimed by their patents and may go to court to stop us from engaging in our normal operations and activities, such as research, development and the sale of any future products. Such lawsuits are expensive and would consume time and other resources. There is a risk that the court will decide that we are infringing the third party’s patents and will order us to stop the activities claimed by the patents, redesign our products or processes to avoid infringement or obtain licenses (which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms). In addition, there is a risk that a court will order us to pay the other party damages for having infringed their patents.
Moreover, there is no guarantee that any prevailing patent owner would offer us a license so that we could continue to engage in activities claimed by the patent, or that such a license, if made available to us, could be acquired on commercially acceptable terms. In addition, third parties may, in the future, assert other intellectual property infringement claims against us with respect to our product candidates, technologies or other matters.
We rely on confidentiality agreements that could be breached and may be difficult to enforce, which could result in third parties using our intellectual property to compete against us.
Although we believe that we take reasonable steps to protect our intellectual property, including the use of agreements relating to the non-disclosure of confidential information to third parties, as well as agreements that purport to require the disclosure and assignment to us of the rights to the ideas, developments, discoveries and inventions of our employees and consultants while we employ them, the agreements can be difficult and costly to enforce. Although we seek to obtain these types of agreements from our contractors, consultants, advisors and research collaborators, to the extent that employees and consultants utilize or independently develop intellectual property in connection with any of our projects, disputes may arise as to the intellectual property rights associated with our products. If a dispute arises, a court may determine that the right belongs to a third party. In addition, enforcement of our rights can be costly and unpredictable. We also rely on trade secrets and proprietary know-how that we seek to protect in part by confidentiality agreements with our employees, contractors, consultants, advisors or others. Despite the protective measures we employ, we still face the risk that:
|·||these agreements may be breached;|
|·||these agreements may not provide adequate remedies for the applicable type of breach;|
|·||our trade secrets or proprietary know-how will otherwise become known; or|
|·||our competitors will independently develop similar technology or proprietary information.|
International patent protection is particularly uncertain, and if we are involved in opposition proceedings in foreign countries, we may have to expend substantial sums and management resources.
Patent law outside the United States is in some cases different than in the United States and is currently undergoing review and revision in many countries. Further, the laws of some foreign countries may not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. For example, certain countries do not grant patent claims that are directed to the treatment of humans. We may participate in opposition proceedings to determine the validity of our foreign patents or our competitors’ foreign patents, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of our efforts.
Although most jurisdictions in which we have applied for, intend to apply for, or have been issued patents have patent protection laws similar to those of the United States, some of them do not. For example, we expect to do business in Brazil and India in the future. However, the Brazilian drug regulatory agency, ENVISA, has the authority to nullify patents on the basis of its perceived public interest and the Indian patent law does not allow patent protection for new uses of pharmaceuticals (many of our current patent applications are of such nature). Additionally, due to uncertainty in patent protection law, we have not filed applications in many countries where significant markets exist, including Indonesia, Pakistan, Russia, African countries and Taiwan.
We may be unable to protect the intellectual property rights of the third parties from whom we license certain of our intellectual property or with whom we have entered into other strategic relationships.
Certain of our intellectual property rights are currently licensed from the NIH and Leiden University, and, in the future, we intend to continue to license intellectual property from the NIH and Leiden University and/or other universities and/or strategic partners. Such third parties may determine not to protect the intellectual property rights that we license from them and we may be unable defend such intellectual property rights on our own or we may have to undertake costly litigation to defend the intellectual property rights of such third parties. There can be no assurances that we will continue to have proprietary rights to any of the intellectual property that we license from such third parties or otherwise have the right to use through similar strategic relationships. Any loss or limitations on use with respect to our right to use such intellectual property licensed from third parties or otherwise obtained from third parties with whom we have entered into strategic relationships could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Under current U.S. and Israeli law, we may not be able to enforce employees’ covenants not to compete and therefore may be unable to prevent our competitors from benefiting from the expertise of some of our former employees.
We have entered into non-competition agreements with our key employees, in most cases within the framework of their employment agreements. These agreements prohibit our key employees, if they cease working for us, from competing directly with us or working for our competitors for a limited period. Under applicable U.S. and Israeli law, we may be unable to enforce these agreements. If we cannot enforce our non-competition agreements with our employees, then we may be unable to prevent our competitors from benefiting from the expertise of our former employees, which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and ability to capitalize on our proprietary information.
Intellectual property rights do not necessarily address all potential threats to our competitive advantage.
The degree of future protection afforded by our intellectual property rights is uncertain because intellectual property rights have limitations, and may not adequately protect our business, or permit us to maintain our competitive advantage. The following examples are illustrative:
|·||Others may be able to make compounds that are the same as or similar to our product candidates but that are not covered by the claims of the patents that we own or have exclusively licensed;|
|·||We or our licensors or any future strategic partners might not have been the first to make the inventions covered by the issued patent or pending patent application that we own or have exclusively licensed;|
|·||We or our licensors or any future strategic partners might not have been the first to file patent applications covering certain of our inventions;|
|·||Others may independently develop similar or alternative technologies or duplicate any of our technologies without infringing our intellectual property rights;|
|·||It is possible that our pending patent applications will not lead to issued patents;|
|·||Issued patents that we own or have exclusively licensed may not provide us with any competitive advantages, or may be held invalid or unenforceable, as a result of legal challenges by our competitors;|
|·||Our competitors might conduct research and development activities in countries where we do not have patent rights and then use the information learned from such activities to develop competitive products for sale in our major commercial markets;|
|·||We may not develop additional proprietary technologies that are patentable; and|
|·||The patents of others may have an adverse effect on our business.|
We may be subject to claims challenging the inventorship of our patents and other intellectual property.
We may be subject to claims that former employees, collaborators or other third parties have an interest in our patents or other intellectual property as an inventor or co-inventor. For example, we may have inventorship disputes arise from conflicting obligations of consultants or others who are involved in developing our product candidates. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these and other claims challenging inventorship. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights, such as exclusive ownership of, or right to use, valuable intellectual property. Such an outcome could have a material adverse effect on our business. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management and other employees. In addition, the Israeli Supreme Court ruled in 2012 that an employee who receives a patent or contributes to an invention during his employment may be allowed to seek compensation for it from their employer, even if the employee’s contract of employment specifically states otherwise and the employee has transferred all intellectual property rights to the employer. The Israeli Supreme Court ruled that the fact that a contract revokes the employee’s right for royalties and compensation, does not rule out the right of the employee to claim their right for royalties. As a result, it is unclear if, and to what extent, our employees may be able to claim compensation with respect to our future revenue. As a result, we may receive less revenue from future products if such claims are successful which in turn could impact our future profitability.
Risks Related to Our Industry
We are subject to government regulations and we may experience delays in obtaining required regulatory approvals in the United States to market our proposed product candidates.
Various aspects of our operations are subject to federal, state or local laws, rules and regulations, any of which may change from time to time. Costs arising out of any regulatory developments could be time-consuming and expensive and could divert management resources and attention and, consequently, could adversely affect our business operations and financial performance.
Delays in regulatory approval, limitations in regulatory approval and withdrawals of regulatory approval may have a material adverse effect on us. If we experience significant delays in testing or receiving approvals or sign-offs to conduct clinical trials, our product development costs, or our ability to license product candidates, will increase. If the FDA grants regulatory approval to market a product, this approval will be limited to those disease states and conditions for which the product has demonstrated, through clinical trials, to be safe and effective. Any product approvals that we receive in the future could also include significant restrictions on the use or marketing of our products. Product approvals, if granted, can be withdrawn for failure to comply with regulatory requirements or upon the occurrence of adverse events following commercial introduction of the products. Failure to comply with applicable FDA or other applicable regulatory requirements may result in criminal prosecution, civil penalties, recall or seizure of products, total or partial suspension of production or injunction, as well as other regulatory action against our product candidates or us. If approval is withdrawn for a product, or if a product were seized or recalled, we would be unable to sell or license that product and our revenues would suffer. In addition, outside the United States, our ability to market any of our potential products is contingent upon receiving market application authorizations from the appropriate regulatory authorities and these foreign regulatory approval processes include all of the risks associated with the FDA approval process described above.
We expect the healthcare industry to face increased limitations on reimbursement as a result of healthcare reform, which could adversely affect third-party coverage of our products and how much or under what circumstances healthcare providers will prescribe or administer our products.
In both the United States and other countries, sales of our products will depend in part upon the availability of reimbursement from third-party payors, which include governmental authorities, managed care organizations and other private health insurers. Third-party payors are increasingly challenging the price and examining the cost effectiveness of medical products and services.
Increasing expenditures for healthcare have been the subject of considerable public attention in the United States. Both private and government entities are seeking ways to reduce or contain healthcare costs. Numerous proposals that would effect changes in the U.S. healthcare system have been introduced or proposed in Congress and in some state legislatures, including reducing reimbursement for prescription products and reducing the levels at which consumers and healthcare providers are reimbursed for purchases of pharmaceutical products.
In 2010, the United States Congress enacted the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 or, Affordable Care Act. The Affordable Care Act seeks to reduce the federal deficit and the rate of growth in health care spending through, among other things, stronger prevention and wellness measures, increased access to primary care, changes in health care delivery systems and the creation of health insurance exchanges. Enrollment in the health insurance exchanges began in October 2013. The Affordable Care Act requires the pharmaceutical industry to share in the costs of reform, by, among other things, increasing Medicaid rebates and expanding Medicaid rebates to cover Medicaid managed care programs. Other components of healthcare reform include funding of pharmaceutical costs for Medicare patients in excess of the prescription drug coverage limit and below the catastrophic coverage threshold. Under the Affordable Care Act, pharmaceutical companies are now obligated to fund 50% of the patient obligation for branded prescription pharmaceuticals in this gap, or “donut hole.” Additionally, commencing in 2011, an excise tax was levied against certain branded pharmaceutical products. The tax is specified by statute to be approximately $3 billion in 2012 through 2016, $3.5 billion in 2017, $4.2 billion in 2018, and $2.8 billion each year thereafter. The tax is to be apportioned to qualifying pharmaceutical companies based on an allocation of their governmental programs as a portion of total pharmaceutical government programs.
Although we cannot predict the full effect on our business of the implementation of existing legislation, including the Affordable Care Act or the enactment of additional legislation, we believe that legislation or regulations that reduce reimbursement for or restrict coverage of our products could adversely affect how much or under what circumstances healthcare providers will prescribe or administer our products. This could materially and adversely affect our business by reducing our ability to generate revenue, raise capital, obtain additional collaborators and market our products. In addition, we believe the increasing emphasis on managed care in the United States has and will continue to put pressure on the price and usage of pharmaceutical products, which may adversely impact product sales.
We are subject to federal anti-kickback laws and regulations. Our failure to comply with these laws and regulations could have adverse consequences to us.
There are extensive U.S. federal and state laws and regulations prohibiting fraud and abuse in the healthcare industry that can result in significant criminal and civil penalties. These federal laws include: the anti-kickback statute, which prohibits certain business practices and relationships, including the payment or receipt of remuneration for the referral of patients whose care will be paid by Medicare or other federal healthcare programs; the physician self-referral prohibition, commonly referred to as the Stark Law; the anti-inducement law, which prohibits providers from offering anything to a Medicare or Medicaid beneficiary to induce that beneficiary to use items or services covered by either program; the False Claims Act, which prohibits any person from knowingly presenting or causing to be presented false or fraudulent claims for payment by the federal government, including the Medicare and Medicaid programs; and the Civil Monetary Penalties Law, which authorizes the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to impose civil penalties administratively for fraudulent or abusive acts.
Sanctions for violating these federal laws include criminal and civil penalties that range from punitive sanctions, damage assessments, money penalties, imprisonment, denial of Medicare and Medicaid payments, or exclusion from the Medicare and Medicaid programs, or both, and debarment. As federal and state budget pressures continue, federal and state administrative agencies may also continue to escalate investigation and enforcement efforts to root out waste and to control fraud and abuse in governmental healthcare programs. Private enforcement of healthcare fraud has also increased, due in large part to amendments to the civil False Claims Act in 1986 that were designed to encourage private persons to sue on behalf of the government. A violation of any of these federal and state fraud and abuse laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and financial condition. An investigation into the use by physicians of any of our products once commercialized may dissuade physicians from either purchasing or using them, and could have a material adverse effect on our ability to commercialize those products.
Risks Related to our Ordinary Shares and ADSs
We may be a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes in 2013 or in any subsequent year. There may be negative tax consequences for U.S. taxpayers that are holders of our ordinary shares or our ADSs.
We will be treated as a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes in any taxable year in which either (i) at least 75% of our gross income is “passive income” or (ii) on average at least 50% of our assets by value produce passive income or are held for the production of passive income. Passive income for this purpose generally includes, among other things, certain dividends, interest, royalties, rents and gains from commodities and securities transactions and from the sale or exchange of property that gives rise to passive income. Passive income also includes amounts derived by reason of the temporary investment of funds, including those raised in a public offering. In determining whether a non-U.S. corporation is a PFIC, a proportionate share of the income and assets of each corporation in which it owns, directly or indirectly, at least a 25% interest (by value) is taken into account. We may be a PFIC during 2013 and although we have not determined whether we will be a PFIC in 2014, or in any subsequent year, our operating results for any such years may cause us to be a PFIC. If we are a PFIC in 2013, or any subsequent year, and a U.S. shareholder does not make an election to treat us as a “qualified electing fund,” or QEF, or make a “mark-to-market” election, then “excess distributions” to a U.S. shareholder, and any gain realized on the sale or other disposition of our ordinary shares or ADSs will be subject to special rules. Under these rules: (i) the excess distribution or gain would be allocated ratably over the U.S. shareholder’s holding period for the ordinary shares (or ADSs, as the case may be); (ii) the amount allocated to the current taxable year and any period prior to the first day of the first taxable year in which we were a PFIC would be taxed as ordinary income; and (iii) the amount allocated to each of the other taxable years would be subject to tax at the highest rate of tax in effect for the applicable class of taxpayer for that year, and an interest charge for the deemed deferral benefit would be imposed with respect to the resulting tax attributable to each such other taxable year. In addition, if the U.S. Internal Revenue Service determines that we are a PFIC for a year with respect to which we have determined that we were not a PFIC, it may be too late for a U.S. shareholder to make a timely QEF or mark-to-market election. U.S. shareholders who hold our ordinary shares or ADSs during a period when we are a PFIC will be subject to the foregoing rules, even if we cease to be a PFIC in subsequent years, subject to exceptions for U.S. shareholders who made a timely QEF or mark-to-market election. A U.S. shareholder can make a QEF election by completing the relevant portions of and filing IRS Form 8621 in accordance with the instructions thereto. Upon request, we will annually furnish U.S. shareholders with information needed in order to complete IRS Form 8621 (which form would be required to be filed with the IRS on an annual basis by the U.S. shareholder) and to make and maintain a valid QEF election for any year in which we or any of our subsidiaries that we control is a PFIC.
The market price of our ordinary shares is, and the market price of our ADSs will be, subject to fluctuation, which could result in substantial losses by our investors.
The stock market in general and the market price of our ordinary shares on the TASE, in particular, is subject to fluctuation, and changes in our share price may be unrelated to our operating performance. The market price of our ordinary shares on the TASE has fluctuated in the past, and we expect it will continue to do so. It is likely that the market price of our ADSs will likewise be subject to wide fluctuations. The market price of our ordinary shares and ADSs are and will be subject to a number of factors, including:
|·||announcements of technological innovations or new products by us or others;|
|·||announcements by us of significant strategic partnerships, out-licensing, in-licensing, joint ventures, acquisitions or capital commitments;|
|·||expiration or terminations of licenses, research contracts or other collaboration agreements;|
|·||public concern as to the safety of drugs we, our licensees or others develop;|
|·||general market conditions;|
|·||the volatility of market prices for shares of biotechnology companies generally;|
|·||success of research and development projects;|
|·||success in clinical and preclinical studies;|
|·||departure of key personnel;|
|·||developments concerning intellectual property rights or regulatory approvals;|
|·||variations in our and our competitors’ results of operations;|
|·||changes in earnings estimates or recommendations by securities analysts, if our ordinary shares or ADSs are covered by analysts;|
|·||changes in government regulations or patent decisions;|
|·||developments by our licensees; and|
|·||general market conditions and other factors, including factors unrelated to our operating performance.|
These factors and any corresponding price fluctuations may materially and adversely affect the market price of our ordinary shares and ADSs and result in substantial losses by our investors.
Additionally, market prices for securities of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies historically have been very volatile. The market for these securities has from time to time experienced significant price and volume fluctuations for reasons unrelated to the operating performance of any one company. In the past, following periods of market volatility, shareholders have often instituted securities class action litigation. If we were involved in securities litigation, it could have a substantial cost and divert resources and attention of management from our business, even if we are successful. Future sales of our ordinary shares or ADSs could reduce the market price of our ordinary shares and ADSs.
Substantial sales of our ordinary shares or ADSs either on the TASE or on the NYSE MKT, as applicable, may cause the market price of our ordinary shares or ADSs to decline.
Sales by us or our security-holders of substantial amounts of our ordinary shares or ADSs, or the perception that these sales may occur in the future, could cause a reduction in the market price of our ordinary shares or ADSs. The issuance of any additional ordinary shares or ADSs, or any securities that are exercisable for or convertible into our ordinary shares or ADSs, may have an adverse effect on the market price of our ordinary shares or ADSs, as applicable, and will have a dilutive effect on our shareholders.
Our ADS holders are not shareholders and do not have shareholder rights.
The Bank of New York Mellon, as Depositary, executes and delivers our ADSs on our behalf. Each ADS is a certificate evidencing a specific number of ordinary shares. Our ADS holders will not be treated as shareholders and do not have the rights of shareholders. The depositary will be the holder of the shares underlying our ADSs. Holders of our ADSs will have ADS holder rights. A deposit agreement among us, the depositary and our ADS holders, and the beneficial owners of ADSs, sets out ADS holder rights as well as the rights and obligations of the depositary. New York law governs the deposit agreement and the ADSs. Our shareholders have shareholder rights. Israeli law and our Articles of Association govern shareholder rights. Our ADS holders do not have the same voting rights as our shareholders. Shareholders are entitled to our notices of general meetings and to attend and vote at our general meetings of shareholders. At a general meeting, every shareholder present (in person or by proxy, attorney or representative) and entitled to vote has one vote. This is subject to any other rights or restrictions which may be attached to any shares. Our ADS holders may instruct the depositary to vote the ordinary shares underlying their ADSs, but only if we ask the depositary to ask for their instructions. If we do not ask the depositary to ask for the instructions, our ADS holders are not entitled to receive our notices of general meeting or instruct the depositary how to vote. Our ADS holders will not be entitled to attend and vote at a general meeting unless they withdraw the ordinary shares from the depository. However, our ADS holders may not know about the meeting enough in advance to withdraw the ordinary shares. If we ask for our ADS holders’ instructions, the depositary will notify our ADS holders of the upcoming vote and arrange to deliver our voting materials and form of notice to them. The depositary will try, as far as is practical, subject to the provisions of the deposit agreement, to vote the shares as our ADS holders instruct. The depositary will not vote or attempt to exercise the right to vote other than in accordance with the instructions of the ADS holders. We cannot assure our ADS holders that they will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that they can instruct the depositary to vote their shares. In addition, there may be other circumstances in which our ADS holders may not be able to exercise voting rights.
Our ADS holders do not have the same rights to receive dividends or other distributions as our shareholders. Subject to any special rights or restrictions attached to a share, the directors may determine that a dividend will be payable on a share and fix the amount, the time for payment and the method for payment (although we have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our ordinary shares and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future). Dividends and other distributions payable to our shareholders with respect to our ordinary shares generally will be payable directly to them. Any dividends or distributions payable with respect to ordinary shares will be paid to the depositary, which has agreed to pay to our ADS holders the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on shares or other deposited securities, after deducting its fees and expenses. Our ADS holders will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of ordinary shares their ADSs represent. In addition, there may be certain circumstances in which the depositary may not pay to our ADS holders amounts distributed by us as a dividend or distribution.
Our ordinary shares and our ADSs are traded on different markets and this may result in price variations.
Our ordinary shares have traded on the TASE since October 2005 and our ADSs have been listed on the NYSE MKT since November 2013. Trading in our securities on these markets will take place in different currencies (U.S. dollars on the NYSE MKT and NIS on the TASE), and at different times (resulting from different time zones, different trading days and different public holidays in the United States and Israel). The trading prices of our securities on these two markets may differ due to these and other factors. Any decrease in the price of our securities on one of these markets could cause a decrease in the trading price of our securities on the other market.
Our ADSs have a limited prior trading history in the United States, and an active market may not develop, which may limit the ability of our investors to sell our ADSs in the United States.
There is a limited public market for our ADSs or ordinary shares in the United States. Although we recently listed our ADSs on the NYSE MKT, our ADSs are thinly traded and an active trading market for our ADSs may never develop or may not be sustained if one develops. If an active market for our ADSs does not develop or is not sustained, it may be difficult to sell your ADSs.
We have incurred significant additional increased costs as a result of the listing of our ADSs for trading on the NYSE MKT, and our management is required to devote substantial time to new compliance initiatives as well as to compliance with ongoing U.S. and Israeli reporting requirements.
As a public company in the United States, we incur additional significant accounting, legal and other expenses that we did not incur before becoming a reporting company in the United States. We also incur costs associated with corporate governance requirements of the SEC and the NYSE MKT Company Guide, as well as requirements under Section 404 and other provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act as a result of our ADSs being listed on the NYSE MKT. These rules and regulations have increased our legal and financial compliance costs, introduced new costs such as investor relations, stock exchange listing fees and shareholder reporting, and made some activities more time consuming and costly. The implementation and testing of such processes and systems may require us to hire outside consultants and incur other significant costs. Any future changes in the laws and regulations affecting public companies in the United States and Israel, including Section 404 and other provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the rules and regulations adopted by the SEC and the NYSE MKT Company Guide, as well as applicable Israeli reporting requirements, for so long as they apply to us, may result in increased costs to us as we respond to such changes. These laws, rules and regulations could make it more difficult or more costly for us to obtain certain types of insurance, including director and officer liability insurance, and we may be forced to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. The impact of these requirements could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our Board of Directors, our board committees or as executive officers.
As a foreign private issuer, we are permitted to follow certain home country corporate governance practices instead of applicable SEC and NYSE MKT requirements, which may result in less protection than is accorded to investors under rules applicable to domestic issuers.
As a foreign private issuer, we will be permitted to follow certain home country corporate governance practices instead of those otherwise required under the NYSE MKT Company Guide for domestic issuers. For instance, we may follow home country practice in Israel with regard to, among other things, composition and function of the audit committee and other committees of our Board of Directors and certain general corporate governance matters. In addition, in certain instances we will follow our home country law, instead of the NYSE MKT Company Guide, which requires that we obtain shareholder approval for certain dilutive events, such as an issuance that will result in a change of control of the company, certain transactions other than a public offering involving issuances of a 20% or more interest in the company and certain acquisitions of the stock or assets of another company. We comply with the director independence requirements of the NYSE MKT Company Guide, including the requirement that a majority of the board of directors be independent, and make the required affirmative determination thereunder upon filing the listing application with the NYSE MKT. Following our home country governance practices as opposed to the requirements that would otherwise apply to a United States company listed on the NYSE MKT may provide less protection than is accorded to investors under the NYSE MKT Company Guide applicable to domestic issuers.
In addition, as a foreign private issuer, we will be exempt from the rules and regulations under the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, related to the furnishing and content of proxy statements, and our officers, directors and principal shareholders will be exempt from the reporting and short-swing profit recovery provisions contained in Section 16 of the Exchange Act. In addition, we will not be required under the Exchange Act to file annual, quarterly and current reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as domestic companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act.
Because we became a reporting company under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, by means of filing a Form 20-F, we may have difficulty attract the attention of research analysts at major brokerage firms.
Because we did not become a reporting company by conducting an underwritten initial public offering in the U.S., we may have difficulty attracting the attention of security analysts at major brokerage firms in order for them to provide coverage of our company. The failure to receive research coverage or support in the market for our shares will have an adverse effect on our ability to develop a liquid market for our ADSs.
If we are unable to satisfy the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act as they apply to a foreign private issuer that is listing on a U.S. exchange for the first time, or our internal control over financial reporting is not effective, the reliability of our financial statements may be questioned and our share price and ADS price may suffer.
We have become subject to the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act since our ADSs are listed on the NYSE MKT. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires companies subject to the reporting requirements of the U.S. securities laws to do a comprehensive evaluation of its and its subsidiaries’ internal control over financial reporting. To comply with this statute, we must document and test our internal control procedures and our management will in the future be required to assess and issue a report concerning our internal control over financial reporting. This annual report does not include a report of management’s assessment regarding internal control over financial reporting due to a transition period established by rules of the SEC for newly public companies, however, we will be required to include a report of management’s assessment regarding internal control over financial reporting in future annual reports. In addition, under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies, like ourselves, are exempt from certain reporting requirements, including the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Under this exemption, our auditor will not be required to attest to and report on our management’s assessment of our internal control over financial reporting during a five-year transition period. We will need to prepare for compliance with Section 404 by strengthening, assessing and testing our system of internal controls to provide the basis for our report. However, the continuous process of strengthening our internal controls and complying with Section 404 is complicated and time-consuming. Furthermore, as our business continues to grow both domestically and internationally, our internal controls will become more complex and will require significantly more resources and attention to ensure our internal controls remain effective overall. During the course of the testing, our management may identify material weaknesses or significant deficiencies, which may not be remedied in a timely manner to meet the deadline imposed by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. If our management cannot favorably assess the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, or our independent registered public accounting firm identifies material weaknesses in our internal controls, investor confidence in our financial results may weaken, and the market price of our securities may suffer.
As an “emerging growth company” under the JOBS Act, we are permitted to, and intend to, rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements.
As an “emerging growth company” under the JOBS Act, we are permitted to, and intend to, rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements. We are an emerging growth company until the earliest of: (i) the last day of the fiscal year during which we had total annual gross revenues of $1 billion or more, (ii) the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date of the first sale of our common stock pursuant to an effective registration statement, (iii) the date on which we have, during the previous three-year period, issued more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt or (iv) the date on which we are deemed a “large accelerated issuer” as defined in Regulation S-K of the Securities Act. For so long as we remain an emerging growth company, we will not be required to:
|·||have an auditor report on our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act;|
|·||comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or the PCAOB, regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements (auditor discussion and analysis);|
|·||submit certain executive compensation matters to shareholders advisory votes pursuant to the “say on frequency” and “say on pay” provisions (requiring a non-binding shareholder vote to approve compensation of certain executive officers) and the “say on golden parachute” provisions (requiring a non-binding shareholder vote to approve golden parachute arrangements for certain executive officers in connection with mergers and certain other business combinations) of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010; and|
|·||include detailed compensation discussion and analysis in our filings under the Exchange Act, and instead may provide a reduced level of disclosure concerning executive compensation.|
Although we intend to rely on the exemptions provided in the JOBS Act, the exact implications of the JOBS Act for us are still subject to interpretations and guidance by the SEC and other regulatory agencies. In addition, as our business grows, we may no longer satisfy the conditions of an emerging growth company. We are currently evaluating and monitoring developments with respect to these new rules and we cannot assure you that we will be able to take advantage of all of the benefits from the JOBS Act.
Risks Related to our Operations in Israel
We conduct our operations in Israel and therefore our results may be adversely affected by political, economic and military instability in Israel and its region.
Our headquarters, all of our operations and some of our suppliers and third party contractors are located in central Israel and our key employees, officers and most of our directors are residents of Israel. Accordingly, political, economic and military conditions in Israel and the surrounding region may directly affect our business. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, a number of armed conflicts have taken place between Israel and its Arab neighbors. Any hostilities involving Israel or the interruption or curtailment of trade within Israel or between Israel and its trading partners could adversely affect our operations and results of operations and could make it more difficult for us to raise capital. During the winter of 2008, Israel was engaged in an armed conflict with Hamas, a militia group and political party operating in the Gaza Strip, and during the summer of 2006, Israel was engaged in an armed conflict with Hezbollah, a Lebanese Islamist Shiite militia group and political party. These conflicts involved missile strikes against civilian targets in various parts of Israel, and negatively affected business conditions in Israel. Recent political uprisings and social unrest in various countries in the Middle East and North Africa are affecting the political stability of those countries. This instability may lead to deterioration of the political relationships that exist between Israel and these countries, and have raised concerns regarding security in the region and the potential for armed conflict. Any armed conflicts, terrorist activities or political instability in the region could adversely affect business conditions and could harm our results of operations. For example, any major escalation in hostilities in the region could result in a portion of our employees and service providers being called up to perform military duty for an extended period of time. Parties with whom we do business have sometimes declined to travel to Israel during periods of heightened unrest or tension, forcing us to make alternative arrangements when necessary. In addition, the political and security situation in Israel may result in parties with whom we have agreements involving performance in Israel claiming that they are not obligated to perform their commitments under those agreements pursuant to force majeure provisions in such agreements.
Our commercial insurance does not cover losses that may occur as a result of events associated with the security situation in the Middle East. Although the Israeli government currently covers the reinstatement value of direct damages that are caused by terrorist attacks or acts of war, we cannot assure you that this government coverage will be maintained. Any losses or damages incurred by us could have a material adverse effect on our business. Any armed conflicts or political instability in the region would likely negatively affect business conditions and could harm our results of operations.
Further, in the past, the State of Israel and Israeli companies have been subjected to an economic boycott. Several countries still restrict business with the State of Israel and with Israeli companies. These restrictive laws and policies may have an adverse impact on our operating results, financial condition or the expansion of our business.
Our operations may be disrupted as a result of the obligation of Israeli citizens to perform military service.
Many Israeli citizens, including Motti Farbstein, our Chief Operating and Financial Officer, are obligated to perform one month, and in some cases more, of annual military reserve duty until they reach the age of 45 (or older, for reservists with certain occupations) and, in the event of a military conflict, may be called to active duty. In response to increases in terrorist activity, there have been periods of significant call-ups of military reservists. It is possible that there will be military reserve duty call-ups in the future. Our operations could be disrupted by such call-ups, which may include the call-up of Motti Farbstein. Such disruption could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Because a certain portion of our expenses is incurred in currencies other than the NIS, our results of operations may be harmed by currency fluctuations and inflation.
Our reporting and functional currency is the NIS, and we pay a substantial portion of our expenses in NIS. The revenues from our licensing arrangements are payable in U.S. dollars and we expect our revenues from future licensing arrangements to be denominated in U.S. dollars or in Euros. As a result, we are exposed to the currency fluctuation risks relating to the recording of our revenues in NIS. For example, if the NIS strengthens against either the U.S. dollar or the Euro, our reported revenues in NIS may be lower than anticipated. The Israeli rate of inflation has not offset or compounded the effects caused by fluctuations between the NIS and the U.S. dollar or the Euro. To date, we have not engaged in hedging transactions. Although the Israeli rate of inflation has not had a material adverse effect on our financial condition during 2011, 2012, or 2013 to date, we may, in the future, decide to enter into currency hedging transactions to decrease the risk of financial exposure from fluctuations in the exchange rates of the currencies mentioned above in relation to the NIS. These measures, however, may not adequately protect us from material adverse effects.
Provisions of Israeli law may delay, prevent or otherwise impede a merger with, or an acquisition of, our Company, which could prevent a change of control, even when the terms of such a transaction are favorable to us and our shareholders.
Israeli corporate law regulates mergers, requires tender offers for acquisitions of shares above specified thresholds, requires special approvals for transactions involving directors, officers or significant shareholders and regulates other matters that may be relevant to these types of transactions. For example, a merger may not be consummated unless at least 50 days have passed from the date that a merger proposal was filed by each merging company with the Israel Registrar of Companies and at least 30 days from the date that the shareholders of both merging companies approved the merger. In addition, a majority of each class of securities of the target company must approve a merger. Moreover, a full tender offer can only be completed if the acquirer receives at least 95% of the issued share capital; provided that, pursuant to an amendment to the Israeli Companies Law, effective as of May 15, 2011, a majority of the offerees that do not have a personal interest in such tender offer shall have approved the tender offer; except that, if the total votes to reject the tender offer represent less than 2% of our issued and outstanding share capital, in the aggregate, approval by a majority of the offerees that do not have a personal interest in such tender offer is not required to complete the tender offer), and the shareholders, including those who indicated their acceptance of the tender offer, may, at any time within six months following the completion of the tender offer, petition the court to alter the consideration for the acquisition (unless the acquirer stipulated in the tender offer that a shareholder that accepts the offer may not seek appraisal rights).
Furthermore, Israeli tax considerations may make potential transactions unappealing to us or to our shareholders whose country of residence does not have a tax treaty with Israel exempting such shareholders from Israeli tax. For example, Israeli tax law does not recognize tax-free share exchanges to the same extent as U.S. tax law. With respect to mergers, Israeli tax law allows for tax deferral in certain circumstances but makes the deferral contingent on the fulfillment of numerous conditions, including a holding period of two years from the date of the transaction during which sales and dispositions of shares of the participating companies are restricted. Moreover, with respect to certain share swap transactions, the tax deferral is limited in time, and when such time expires, the tax becomes payable even if no actual disposition of the shares has occurred.
These and other similar provisions could delay, prevent or impede an acquisition of us or our merger with another company, even if such an acquisition or merger would be beneficial to us or to our shareholders. See “Item 10. Additional Information — Memorandum and Articles of Association.”
It may be difficult to enforce a U.S. judgment against us and our officers and directors named in this Annual Report on Form 20-F in Israel or the United States, or to serve process on our officers and directors.
We are incorporated in Israel. All of our executive officers and directors listed in this Annual Report on Form 20-F reside outside of the United States, and all of our assets and most of the assets of our executive officers and directors are located outside of the United States. Therefore, a judgment obtained against us or most of our executive officers and all of our directors in the United States, including one based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws, may not be collectible in the United States and may not be enforced by an Israeli court. It also may be difficult for you to effect service of process on these persons in the United States or to assert U.S. securities law claims in original actions instituted in Israel.
Your rights and responsibilities as a shareholder will be governed by Israeli law which may differ in some respects from the rights and responsibilities of shareholders of U.S. companies.
We are incorporated under Israeli law. The rights and responsibilities of the holders of our ordinary shares and ADSs are governed by our Articles of Association and Israeli law. These rights and responsibilities differ in some respects from the rights and responsibilities of shareholders in typical U.S.-based corporations. In particular, a shareholder of an Israeli company has a duty to act in good faith toward the company and other shareholders and to refrain from abusing its power in the company, including, among other things, in voting at the general meeting of shareholders on matters such as amendments to a company’s articles of association, increases in a company’s authorized share capital, mergers and acquisitions and interested party transactions requiring shareholder approval. In addition, a shareholder who knows that it possesses the power to determine the outcome of a shareholder vote or to appoint or prevent the appointment of a director or executive officer in the company has a duty of fairness toward the company. There is limited case law available to assist us in understanding the implications of these provisions that govern shareholders’ actions. These provisions may be interpreted to impose additional obligations and liabilities on holders of our ordinary shares and ADSs that are not typically imposed on shareholders of U.S. corporations.
ITEM 4. Information on the Company
A. History and Development of the Company
Our legal name is Can-Fite BioPharma Ltd. and our commercial name is “Can-Fite.” We are a company limited by shares organized under the laws of the State of Israel. Our principal executive offices are located at 10 Bareket Street, Kiryat Matalon, Petah-Tikva 4951778 Israel. Our telephone number is +972 (3) 924-1114.
We were founded on September 11, 1994 by Pnina Fishman, Ph.D., our Chief Executive Officer and a director, and Ilan Cohn, Ph.D., our Vice-Chairman of the Board of Directors, under the name Can-Fite Technologies Ltd. On January 7, 2001, we changed our name to Can-Fite BioPharma Ltd. We completed our initial public offering in Israel in October 2005 and our ordinary shares are traded on the TASE under the symbol “CFBI”. On October 2, 2012, our ADSs began trading over the counter, or OTC, in the United States under the symbol “CANFY” and on November 19, 2013, our ADSs began trading on the NYSE MKT under the symbol “CANF.”
In November 2011, through a series of transactions, we spun-off our activity in the ophthalmic field to OphthaliX, Inc., a Delaware corporation and successor-in-interest to Denali Concrete Management, Inc., a Nevada corporation, or OphthaliX, whose common shares are traded in the United States on OTC under the symbol “OPLI.” In the spin-off transactions, we granted an exclusive license for the use of our CF101 drug candidate in the ophthalmic field to Eye-Fite Ltd., an Israel limited company and a former wholly-owned subsidiary of ours, or Eye-Fite, and transferred our issued and outstanding ordinary shares in Eye-Fite to OphthaliX in exchange for an 86.7% interest in OphthaliX. In connection with the spin-off transactions, OphthaliX completed a series of private placement financing transactions. Following the spin-off transactions and the private placement financing transactions, we held approximately 82% interest in OphthaliX and OphthaliX continues to develop the CF101 drug candidate for certain ophthalmic indications. See “Item 10. Additional Information — Material Contracts — OphthaliX Agreements.”
We effected a 1-for-25 reverse share split with respect to our ordinary shares, options and warrants on May 12, 2013. Unless indicated otherwise by the context, all ordinary share, option, warrant and per share amounts as well as stock prices appearing in this annual report have been adjusted to give retroactive effect to the share split for all periods presented.
Our capital expenditures for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011 were NIS 43,000, NIS 17,000 and NIS 81,000, respectively. Our current capital expenditures are made solely within Israel and primarily consist of the acquisition of computers and related communications equipment. Such capital expenditures are financed internally.
We qualify as an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act. For as long as we are deemed an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other regulatory requirements that are generally unavailable to other public companies. These provisions include:
|·||an exemption from the auditor attestation requirement in the assessment of our internal controls over financial reporting required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002;|
|·||an exemption from compliance with any new requirements adopted by the PCAOB requiring mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report in which the auditor would be required to provide additional information about our audit and our financial statements; and|
|·||reduced disclosure about our executive compensation arrangements.|
We will continue to be deemed an emerging growth company until the earliest of:
|·||the last day of our fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenues of $1,000,000,000 (as such amount is indexed for inflation every five years by the SEC to reflect the change in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, setting the threshold to the nearest $1,000,000) or more;|
|·||the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date of our first sale of common equity securities pursuant to an effective registration statement under the Securities Act;|
|·||the date on which we have, during the prior three-year period, issued more than $1,000,000,000 in non-convertible debt; or|
|·||the date on which we are deemed to be a ‘large accelerated filer,” as defined in Regulation S-K under the Securities Act.|
B. Business Overview
We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing orally bioavailable small molecule therapeutic products for the treatment of autoimmune-inflammatory, oncological and ophthalmic diseases. Our platform technology utilizes the Gi protein associated A3AR as a therapeutic target. A3AR is highly expressed in inflammatory and cancer cells, and not significantly expressed in normal cells, suggesting that the receptor could be a unique target for pharmacological intervention. Our pipeline of drug candidates are synthetic, highly specific agonists and allosteric modulators, or ligands or molecules that initiate molecular events when binding with target proteins, targeting the A3AR.
Our product pipeline is based on the research of Dr. Pnina Fishman, who investigated a clinical observation that tumor metastasis can be found in most body tissues, but are rarely found in muscle tissue, which constitutes approximately 60% of human body weight. Dr. Fishman’s research revealed that one reason that striated muscle tissue is resistant to tumor metastasis is that muscle cells release small molecules which bind with high selectivity to the A3AR. As part of her research, Dr. Fishman also discovered that A3ARs have significant expression in tumor and inflammatory cells, whereas normal cells have low or no expression of this receptor. The A3AR agonists and allosteric modulators, currently our pipeline of drug candidates, bind with high selectivity and affinity to the A3ARs and upon binding to the receptor initiate down-stream signal transduction pathways resulting in apoptosis, or programmed cell death, of tumors and inflammatory cells and to the inhibition of inflammatory cytokines. Cytokines are proteins produced by cells that interact with cells of the immune system in order to regulate the body’s response to disease and infection. Overproduction or inappropriate production of certain cytokines by the body can result in disease. We have in-licensed certain patents and patent applications protecting three different A3AR ligands which represent our current pipeline of drug candidates under development and include two synthetic A3AR agonists, CF101 (known generically as IB-MECA) and CF102 (known generically as CI-IB-MECA) from the NIH, and an allosteric modulator at the A3AR, CF602 from Leiden University. In addition, we have out-licensed CF101 for (i) the treatment of autoimmune diseases to Seikagaku Corporation, a Japanese public corporation, or SKK, for the Japanese market, (ii) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, or RA to Kwang Dong Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., a South Korean limited company, or KD, for the Korean market and (iii) for the treatment of ophthalmic diseases to Eye-Fite, a wholly-owned subsidiary of OphthaliX for the global market.
Our product candidates, CF101, CF102 and CF602 are being developed to treat several autoimmune-inflammatory, oncological and ophthalmic indications. CF101 is in various stages of clinical development for the treatment of autoimmune-inflammatory diseases, including RA; psoriasis and osteoarthritis, or OA. CF101 is also being developed by OphthaliX for the treatment of ophthalmic indications, including keratoconjunctivitis sicca, also known as dry eye syndrome, or DES, glaucoma and uveitis. CF602 is our second generation allosteric drug candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, which has shown proof of concept in in vitro and in vivo studies. The CF102 drug candidate is being developed for the treatment of HCC, and for the treatment of HCV. In addition, we recently announced that we are planning to develop CF602 to treat sexual dysfunction. Preclinical studies revealed that our drug candidates have potential to treat additional inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn’s disease, oncological diseases and viral diseases, such as the JC virus, a virus that causes a potentially fatal brain disease in persons with an immunodeficiency.
We believe our pipeline of drug candidates represent a significant market opportunity. For instance, according to Visiongain, the world RA market size is predicted to generate revenues of $38.5 billion in 2017. According to GlobalData, the psoriasis drug market is forecasted to grow from $3.6 billion in 2010 to $6.7 billion by 2018. Transparency Market Research estimated the global osteoporosis market to be $7.3 billion in 2010 and expected it to reach $11.4 billion in 2015. GlobalData estimated the DES global market at approximately $1.6 billion in 2012, and expected it to grow to approximately $5.5 billion by 2022 while it expected the glaucoma market to exceed $3 billion by 2018.
We believe that our drug candidates have certain unique characteristics and advantages over drugs currently available on the market and under development to treat these indications. To date, we have generated our pipeline by in-licensing, researching and developing two synthetic A3AR agonists, CF101 and CF102, and an allosteric modulator, CF602. For example, our technology platform is based on the finding that the A3AR is highly expressed in pathological cells, such as various tumor cell types and inflammatory cells. High A3AR expression levels are also found in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, or PBMCs, of patients with cancer, inflammatory and viral diseases. PBMCs are a critical part of the immune system required to fight infection. We believe that targeting the A3AR with synthetic and highly selective A3AR agonists, such as CF101 and CF102, and allosteric modulators, such as CF602, induces anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, our human clinical data suggests that the A3AR is a biological marker and that high A3AR expression prior to treatment may be predictive of good patient response to our drug treatment. In fact, as a result of our research we have developed a simple blood assay to test for A3AR expression as a predictive biological marker. We have been granted a U.S. patent with respect to the intellectual property related to such assay and utilized this assay in our Phase IIb study of CF101 tor the treatment of RA.
Moreover, we believe characteristics of CF101, as exhibited in our clinical studies to date, including its good safety profile, clinical activity, simple and less frequent delivery through oral administration and its low cost of production, position it well against the competition in the autoimmune-inflammatory markets, including the RA and psoriasis markets, where treatments, when available, often include injectable drugs, many of which can be highly toxic, expensive and not always effective. Furthermore, pre-clinical pharmacology studies in different experimental animal models of arthritis revealed that CF101 acts as a disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug, or a DMARD, which, when coupled with its good safety profile, make it competitive in the psoriasis, RA and OA markets. Our recent findings also demonstrate that a biological predictive marker can be utilized prior to treatment with CF101, which may allow it to be used as a personalized medicine therapeutic approach for the treatment of RA. We also believe CF101 is well-positioned against some of the competition in the ophthalmic markets, in particular, glaucoma, where treatments, when available, often include frequent self-administered eye drops, which may be more difficult than taking pills and may result in less than the full dose of the drug actually entering the eye, have undesirable side effects and do not simultaneously treat the underlying cause and relieve the symptoms associated with the indication. Like CF101, CF102 has a good safety profile, is orally administered and has a low cost of production, which we believe positions it well in the HCC market, where only one drug, Nexavar, has been approved by the FDA.
Nevertheless, other drugs on the market, new drugs under development (including drugs that are in more advanced stages of development in comparison to our drug candidates) and additional drugs that were originally intended for other purposes, but were found effective for purposes targeted by us, may all be competitive to the current drugs in our pipeline. In fact, some of these drugs are well established and accepted among patients and physicians in their respective markets, are orally bioavailable, can be efficiently produced and marketed, and are relatively safe. None of our product candidates have been approved for sale or marketing and, to date, there have been no commercial sales of any of our product candidates.
Our research further suggests that A3AR affects pathological and normal cells differently. While specific A3AR agonists, such as CF101 and CF102, and allosteric modulators, such as CF602, appear to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis of cancer and inflammatory cells, normal cells are refractory, or unresponsive to the effects of these drugs. To date, the A3AR agonists have had a positive safety profile as a result of this differential effect.
We also seek to obtain technologies that complement and expand our existing technology base by entering into license agreements with academic institutions and biotechnology companies. To date, we have in-licensed intellectual property which protects certain small molecules, such as CF101 and CF102, from the NIH, and CF602 from Leiden University. Under our license agreements we are generally obligated to diligently pursue product development, make development milestone payments, pay royalties on any product sale and make payments upon the grant of sublicense rights. The scope of payments we are required to make under our in-licensing agreements is comprised of various components that are paid commensurate with the progressive development and commercialization of our drug products. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Business Overview—In-Licensing Agreements.”
In addition to in-licensing, we have also out-licensed one of our molecules to third-parties to capitalize on the experience, capabilities and location of such third-parties. Similar to our obligations under any in-license agreements, pursuant to these out-licensing agreements, our licensees are generally obligated to diligently pursue product development, make up-front payments, make development milestone payments and pay royalties on sales. Accordingly, we expect to fund certain of our future operations through out-licensing arrangements with respect to our product candidates. To date, we have out-licensed CF101 for the treatment of autoimmune diseases for the Japanese market to SKK, and CF101 for the treatment of RA for the Korean market to KD and CF101 for ophthalmic diseases for the global market to OphthaliX. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Business Overview—Out-Licensing Agreements.”
We are currently: (i) conducting a Phase II/III trial with respect to the development of CF101 for the treatment of psoriasis; (ii) preparing for a Phase III trial with respect to the development of CF101 for the treatment of RA; (iii) preparing for a Phase II study with respect to the development of CF101 for the treatment of OA; (iv) preparing for a Phase II study with respect to the development of CF102 for the treatment of HCC (and as part of this study, we will also test CF102 in patients with both HCC and HCV); and (v) preparing for further preclinical work with respect to the development of CF602. OphthaliX is currently: (i) conducting a retrospective analysis of its Phase III DES study data to determine if there is a correlation between the A3AR biomarker and patients’ response to CF101; (ii) conducting a Phase II trial with respect to the development of CF101 for the treatment of glaucoma or related syndromes of ocular hypertension; and (iii) initiating a Phase II study of CF101 for the treatment of uveitis.
Our strategy is to build a fully integrated biotechnology company that discovers, in-licenses and develops an innovative and effective small molecule drug portfolio of ligands that bind to a specific therapeutic target for the treatment of autoimmune-inflammatory, oncological, ophthalmic diseases and more. We continue to develop and test our existing pipeline, while also testing other indications for our existing drugs and examining, from time to time, the potential of other small molecules that may fit our platform technology of utilizing small molecules to target the A3AR. We generally focus on drugs with global market potential and we seek to create global partnerships to effectively assist us in developing our portfolio and to market our products. Our approach allows us to:
|·||continue to advance our clinical and preclinical pipeline;|
|·||test our products for additional indications which fit our molecules’ mechanism of action;|
|·||identify other small molecule drugs or ligands;|
|·||focus on our product candidates closest to realizing their potential; and|
|·||avoid dependency on a small number of small molecules and indications.|
Using this approach, we have successfully advanced our product candidates for a number of indications into various stages of clinical development. Specific elements of our current strategy include the following:
Successful development of our existing portfolio of small molecule orally bioavailable drugs for the treatment of various diseases. We intend to continue to develop our existing portfolio of small molecule orally bioavailable drugs, both for existing targeted diseases, as well as other potential indications. Our drug development will continue to focus on inflammatory, oncological and ophthalmic diseases. We will focus most prominently on advancing our product candidates that are in the most advanced stages, i.e., plaque psoriasis and RA (and later posterior uveitis and glaucoma) with respect to CF101, and HCC with respect to CF102. Following the recent announcement of top-line results that CF101 did not meet the DES Phase III primary and secondary efficacy end-points, Ophthalix is currently evaluating the results of this study and we intend to provide an update on its plans for the DES indication at a later date.
Use our expertise with our platform technology to evaluate in-licensing opportunities. We continuously seek attractive product candidates and innovative technologies to in-license or acquire. We intend to focus on product candidates that would be synergistic with our A3AR expertise. We believe that by pursuing selective acquisitions of technologies in businesses that complement our own, we will be able to enhance our competitiveness and strengthen our market position. We intend to utilize our expertise in A3AR and our pharmacological expertise to validate new classes of small molecule orally bioavailable drugs. We will then seek to grow our product candidate portfolio by attempting to in-license those various candidates and to develop them for a variety of indications.
Primarily develop products that target major global markets. Our existing product candidates are almost all directed at diseases that have major global markets. Our intent is to continue to develop products that target diseases that affect significant populations using our platform technology. We believe these arrangements will allow us to share the high development cost, minimize the risk of failure and enjoy our partners’ marketing capabilities, while also enabling us to treat a more significant number of persons. We believe further that this strategy will increase the likelihood of advancing clinical development and potential commercialization of our product candidates.
Commercialize our product candidates through out-licensing arrangements. We have entered into two out-licensing arrangements with major pharmaceutical companies in the Far East. We intend to continue to commercialize our product candidates through out-licensing arrangements with third parties who may perform any or all of the following tasks: completing development, securing regulatory approvals, manufacturing, marketing and sales. We do not intend to develop our own manufacturing facilities or sales forces. If appropriate, we may enter into co-development and similar arrangements with respect to any product candidate with third parties or commercialize a product candidate ourselves. We believe these arrangements will allow us to share the high development cost, minimize the risk of failure and enjoy our partners’ marketing capabilities. We believe further that this strategy will increase the likelihood of advancing clinical development and potential commercialization of our product candidates.
Our Product Pipeline
The table below sets forth our current pipeline of product candidates, including the target indication and status of each.
|Clinical Application/Drug||Pre-Clinical||Phase I||Phase II||Phase III|
|Psoriasis – CF101(1)|
|Rheumatoid Arthritis – CF101(2)|
|Osteoarthritis – CF101(3)|
|Inflammation and Sexual Dysfunction – CF602(4)|
|HCC – CF102(5)|
|Glaucoma – CF101(7)|
|Uveitis – CF101(8)|
|(1)||We are conducting a Phase II/III trial with respect to the development of CF101 for the treatment of psoriasis.|
|(2)||We are preparing for a Phase III trial with respect to the development of CF101 for the treatment of RA.|
|(3)||We are preparing for a Phase II study with respect to the development of CF101 for the treatment of OA.|
|(4)||We are preparing for further preclinical work with respect to the development of CF602.|
|(5)||We are preparing for a Phase II study with respect to the development of CF102 for the treatment of HCC (and as part of this study, we will also test CF102 in patients with both HCC and HCV).|
|(6)||OphthaliX, an 82% owned subsidiary of ours, develops CF101 for ophthalmic indications.|
|(7)||OphthaliX is conducting a Phase II trial with respect to the development of CF101 for the treatment of glaucoma or related syndromes of ocular hypertension.|
|(8)||OpthlaliX is initiating a Phase II study of CF101 for the treatment of uveitis.|
CF101, our lead therapeutic product candidate, is in development for the treatment of autoimmune-inflammatory diseases, psoriasis, RA and OA, and the ophthalmic diseases, DES, glaucoma and uveitis. In certain of our pharmacological studies, CF101 has also shown potential for development for the treatment of Crohn’s disease. CF101 is a highly-selective, orally bioavailable small molecule synthetic drug, which targets the A3AR. Based on our clinical studies to date, we believe that CF101 has a favorable safety profile and significant anti-inflammatory effects as a result of its capability to inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1, and chemokines, or small cytokines, such as MMPs, by signaling key proteins such as NF-кB and PKB/AKT. Overall, these up-stream events result in apoptosis of inflammatory cells. See Figure 1 below. CF101’s anti-inflammatory effect is mediated via the A3AR, which is highly expressed in inflammatory cells.
Figure 1: CF101 anti-inflammatory mechanism of action
Set forth below are general descriptions of the inflammatory and ophthalmic diseases with respect to which CF101 has underwent, is currently undergoing, or is in preparation for clinical trials.
Psoriasis: Psoriasis is an autoimmune hereditary disease that affects the skin. In psoriasis, immune cells move from the dermis to the epidermis, where they stimulate keratinocytes, or skin cells, to proliferate. DNA acts as an inflammatory stimulus to stimulate receptors which produce cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α, and antimicrobial peptides. These cytokines and antimicrobial peptides signal more inflammatory cells to arrive and produce further inflammation. In other words, psoriasis occurs when the immune system overreacts and mistakes the skin cells as a pathogen, and sends out faulty signals that speed up the growth cycle of skin cells. Normally, skin cells grow gradually and flake off approximately every four weeks. New skin cells grow to replace the outer layers of the skin as they shed. But in psoriasis, new skin cells move rapidly to the surface of the skin in days rather than weeks. They build up and form thick patches called plaques.
There are five types of psoriasis: plaque, guttate, inverse, pustular and erythrodermic. The most common form, plaque psoriasis, is commonly seen as red and white hues of scaly patches appearing on the top first layer of the epidermis, or skin. In plaque psoriasis, skin rapidly accumulates at these sites, which gives it a silvery-white appearance. Plaques frequently occur on the skin of the lower back, elbows and knees, but can affect any area, including the scalp, palms of hands, soles of feet and genitals. The plaques range in size from small to large. In contrast to eczema, psoriasis is more likely to be found on the outer side of the joint. Some patients, though, have no dermatological symptoms.
Psoriasis is a chronic recurring condition that varies in severity from minor localized patches to complete body coverage. Fingernails and toenails are frequently affected, known as psoriatic nail dystrophy, and can be seen as an isolated symptom. Psoriasis can also cause inflammation of the joints, which is known as psoriatic arthritis.
Rheumatoid Arthritis: RA, is a chronic, systemic autoimmune-inflammatory disease that may affect many tissues and organs, but principally attacks flexible synovial, or joints, on both sides of the body. This symmetry helps distinguish RA from other types of arthritis, which is the general term for joint inflammation. Although the cause of RA is unknown, autoimmunity plays a pivotal role in both its chronicity and progression. The disease involves abnormal B cell–T cell interaction, which results in the release of cytokines. The cytokines signal the release of inflammatory cells. The inflammatory cells migrate from the blood into the joints and joint-lining tissue. There, the cells produce inflammatory substances that cause irritation, wearing down of cartilage, or the cushioning material at the end of bones, swelling and inflammation of the joint lining, which is caused by excess synovial fluid, the development of pannus, or fibrous tissue, in the joint, and ankylosis, or fusion of the joints. Joint inflammation is characterized by redness, warmth, swelling and pain within the joint. As the cartilage wears down, the space between the bones narrows. If the condition worsens, the bones could rub against each other. As the lining expands due to inflammation from excess fluid, it may erode the adjacent bone, resulting in bone damage. RA can also produce diffuse inflammation in the lungs, membrane around the heart, the membranes of the lungs, and white of the eye, and also nodular lesions, most common in subcutaneous tissue.
Osteoarthritis: OA is a common chronic degenerative joint disease that is characterized by a group of mechanical abnormalities involving degradation of joints, including articular cartilage, or the cartilage found on joint surfaces. Although degeneration of joint cartilage is the central feature in OA, the disease is also associated with changes in synovium and subchondral bone metabolism, causing inflammation of the synovial membrane in the involved joints. Synovial inflammation and local concentration of pro-inflammatory mediators seem to be directly involved in the generation of pain in osteoarthritic joints.
OA is related to, but not caused by, aging. As a person ages, the water content of the cartilage decreases, causing the cartilage to be less resilient. When the cartilage is less resilient, it can become susceptible to degradation or exacerbation of existing degeneration. Inflammation of the surrounding joint capsule can also occur, though often mild (compared to what occurs in RA). This can happen as breakdown products from the cartilage are released into the synovial space and the cells lining the joint attempt to remove them. New bone outgrowths, called “spurs” or osteophytes, can form on the margins of the joints. These bone changes, together with the inflammation, can be both painful and debilitating.
Mechanical stress on joints underlies all OA. There are many and varied sources of mechanical stress, including misalignments of bones caused by congenital or pathogenic causes, mechanical injury, obesity, loss of strength in muscles supporting joints and impairment of peripheral nerves, leading to sudden or uncoordinated movements that overstress joints. However, despite the numerous causes of osteoarthritis, the resulting pathology remains the same.
Dry Eye Syndrome: DES is an eye disease caused by eye dryness, which, in turn, is caused by either decreased tear production or increased tear film evaporation. The tear film is comprised of the lower mucous layer which helps the tear film adhere to the eyes, a middle layer of water and an upper oil layer that seals the tear film and prevents evaporation. The tear film keeps the eye moist, creates a smooth surface for light to pass through the eye, nourishes the front of the eye and provides protection from injury and infection. DES is usually caused by aqueous tear deficiency, or inadequate tear production, whereby the lachrymal gland, the gland that secretes the aqueous layer of the tear film, does not produce sufficient tears to keep the entire conjunctiva, or the tissue inside the eyelids that covers the sclera, and cornea covered by a complete layer of tear film. In rare cases, aqueous tear deficiency may be a symptom of collagen vascular diseases, including RA, Wegener’s granulomatosis, an incurable form of vasculitis (the inflammatory destruction of blood vessels), systemic lupus erythematosus, an autoimmune connective tissue disease, Sjögren’s syndrome, an autoimmune process in which patients suffer from mouth and eye dryness, and autoimmune diseases associated with Sjögren’s syndrome. DES can also be caused by abnormal tear composition resulting in rapid evaporation or premature destruction of tears. Additional causes include, but are not limited to, age, use of certain drugs and the use of contact lenses.
DES is characterized by eye irritation symptoms, blurred and fluctuating vision, tear film instability, increased tear osmolarity and ocular surface epithelial disease. DES causes constant ocular discomfort, typically dryness, burning, a sandy-gritty eye irritation and a decrease in visual function. Over an extended period of time, DES can lead to tiny abrasions on the surface of the eyes. In advanced cases, the epithelium undergoes pathologic changes, namely squamous metaplasia, a non-cancerous change of surface-lining cells, and loss of goblet cells, which secrete mucin, which in turn dissolves in water to form mucous. Some severe cases result in thickening of the corneal surface, corneal erosion, epithelial defects, corneal ulceration (sterile and infected), corneal neovascularization, or excessive ingrowth of blood vessels, corneal scarring, corneal thinning, and even corneal perforation. In the most severe cases, DES may result in deterioration of vision.
Glaucoma: Glaucoma is an eye disease in which the optic nerve is damaged. This optic nerve damage involves loss of retinal ganglion cells, or neurons located near the inner surface of the retina, in a characteristic pattern. There are many different subtypes of glaucoma, but they can all be considered to be a type of optic neuropathy. Raised intraocular pressure, or IOP, is the most important and only modifiable risk factor for glaucoma. However, some individuals may have high IOP for years and never develop optic nerve damage. This is known as ocular hypertension. Others may develop optic nerve damage at a relatively low IOP, and, thus, glaucoma. Untreated glaucoma can lead to permanent damage of the optic nerve and resultant visual field loss, which over time can progress to blindness.
Glaucoma can be roughly divided into two main categories, “open angle” and “closed angle” glaucoma. The angle refers to the area between the iris and cornea through which fluid must flow to exit the eye. The difficulty or inability of such fluid to exit the eye causes an acute increase of pressure and pain. Closed angle glaucoma can appear suddenly, is often painful and visual loss can progress quickly. However, the discomfort often leads patients to seek medical attention before permanent damage occurs. Open angle, chronic glaucoma tends to progress at a slower rate and patients may not notice they have lost vision until the disease has progressed significantly.
Uveitis: Uveitis is inflammation of the middle layer of the eye, or the uvea, caused by an immune reaction. Uveitis can be associated with auto-immune inflammatory diseases and various eye infections. Uveitis is a common cause of blindness. The most common form of uveitis is anterior uveitis, which involves inflammation in the front part of the eye. It is often called iritis because it usually only affects the iris, the colored part of the eye. The inflammation may be associated with autoimmune diseases, but most cases occur in healthy people. The disorder may affect only one eye and is most common in young and middle-aged people.
Posterior uveitis affects the back part of the uvea, and involves primarily the choroid, a layer of blood vessels and connective tissue in the middle part of the eye. This type of uveitis is called choroiditis. If the retina is also involved, it is called chorioretinitis. Anterior uveitis affects the front part of the uvea, and involves primarily the iris and the cilliary body. This type of uveitis is called iridocyclitis. These conditions may develop as a result of a body-wide, or systemic, infection or an autoimmune disease. Another form of uveitis is pars planitis. This inflammation affects the narrowed area, or the pars plana, between the iris, or colored part of the eye, and the choroid. Pars planitis usually occurs in young men and is generally not associated with any other disease. However, some evidence suggests it may be linked to Crohn’s disease and, possibly, multiple sclerosis.
Pre-Clinical Studies of CF101
The information below is based on the various studies conducted with CF101, including preclinical studies. All of the studies were conducted by Can-Fite and/or by Can-Fite’s partners or affiliates.
The toxicity of CF101 has been evaluated following 28-day, 90-day, six-month and nine-month good laboratory practice repeated-dose toxicity studies in male and female mice (28-day, 90-day and six-month), dogs (single-dose only), and monkeys (28-day, 90-day and nine-month). Even though the dose of CF101 in these studies was escalated to an exposure that is many folds higher than the dose used in human clinical studies, no toxic side effects were identified.
Effects on cardiovascular parameters were evaluated in conscious instrumented monkeys and anesthetized dogs. These studies demonstrated no significant cardiovascular risk.
Genotoxicity studies were conducted in bacterial and mammalian mutation assays in vitro (i.e., laboratory) and in an in vivo (i.e., animal) mouse micronucleus assay. These studies were all negative, indicating no deleterious action on cellular genetic material.
Reproductive toxicology studies that we completed in mice and rabbits did not reveal evidence of negative effects on male or female fertility. In mouse teratology studies, or studies for abnormalities of physiological developments, craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities were observed at doses greater than 10 mg/kg; however, no such effects were observed at 3 mg/kg. Teratogenicity, or any developmental anomaly in a fetus, was not observed in rabbits given doses (greater than 13 mg/kg) that induced severe maternal toxicity in such rabbits.
Studies of P450 enzymes, or enzymes that participate in the metabolism of drugs, showed that CF101 caused no P450 enzyme inhibition, or increased drug activity, or induction, or reduced drug activity. Studies carried out with radiolabeled (C14) CF101 in rats showed that the drug is excreted essentially unchanged. These studies also showed that the drug is widely distributed in all body parts, except the central nervous system.
Clinical Studies of CF101
The information below is based on the various studies conducted with CF101, including clinical studies in patients with autoimmune-inflammatory and ophthalmic diseases. All of the studies were conducted by Can-Fite and/or by Can-Fite’s partners or affiliates.
Phase I Clinical Studies of CF101
CF101 has been studied comprehensively in normal volunteer trials to assess safety, pharmacokinetic metabolism and food interaction. Two Phase I studies in 40 healthy volunteers, single dose and repeated dose, indicated that CF101 is rapidly absorbed (reaching a maximal concentration within one to two hours) with a half-life of eight to nine hours. Some mild adverse events (principally, increased heart rate) were observed at doses higher than single doses of 10.0 mg and twice-daily doses of 5.0 mg. Such increase in heart rate was not accompanied by any change in QT intervals. The drug showed linear kinetics, in that the concentration that results from the dose is proportional to the dose and the rate of elimination of the drug is proportional to the concentration, and low inter-subject variability, meaning that the same dose of the drug does not produce large differences in pharmacological responses in different individuals. A fed-fast Phase I study (with and without food) demonstrated that food causes some attenuation in CF101 absorption; accordingly CF101 is instructed to be given to patients on an empty stomach in our trials. An additional Phase I study of the absorption, metabolism, excretion and mass balance of 4.0 mg (C14) CF101 was conducted in six healthy male subjects and demonstrated that CF101 was generally well-tolerated in this group.
Based on the findings from Phase I clinical studies, 4.0 mg BID, or twice daily, was selected as the upper limit for initial Phase II clinical trials.
Phase II and Phase II/III Clinical Studies of CF101
CF101 has completed nine Phase II studies in DES, Psoriasis and RA in approximately 1,265 patients (865 patients treated with CF101 and 400 patients treated with a placebo) for an aggregate exposure of approximately 260 patient years. These studies indicate that CF101 has a favorable safety profile at doses up to 4.0 mg BID for up to 12 weeks. In these Phase II studies, we did not observe a dose-response relationship between CF101 and adverse events. Moreover, we did not observe any clinically significant changes in vital signs, electrocardiograms, blood chemistry or hematology. CF101 given as a standalone therapy reached the primary endpoint in Phase II clinical studies in DES and psoriasis. In addition, we observed positive data utilizing CF101 as a standalone drug in a Phase IIa clinical study in RA. In this study, we also observed a significant direct correlation between A3AR expression prior to treatment and the patients’ responses to CF101. However, we did not fully attain the primary endpoint in this study as we did not observe a significant difference in responses between CF101 and the placebo (which for this study was 0.1 mg of CF101). Moreover, two Phase IIb studies in RA utilizing CF101 in combination with methotrexate, a generic drug commonly used for treating RA patients, or MTX, also failed to reach the primary endpoints. Based on this data, we believe that the failures in the Phase IIb studies in RA may have been due to low A3AR expression in the MTX-treated patients and as such, are currently in the process of testing CF101 as a standalone therapy in patients with A3AR expression levels above a certain threshold. CF101 has been tested in Phase II trials to establish dose and activity (first, orally administered capsules and then tablets in formulations of 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg of CF101 BID) in the following clinical settings:
|·||Psoriasis (moderate to severe plaque psoriasis).|
|·||DES (moderate to severe).|
Psoriasis: The rationale for utilizing CF101 to treat psoriasis stems from our pre-clinical pharmacology studies showing that CF101 acts as an anti-inflammatory agent via the inhibition of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, which plays a major role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. In addition, the A3AR is over-expressed in the tissue and PBMCs of patients with psoriasis.
We completed an exploratory Phase II trial in ten European and Israeli medical centers involving 76 patients. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled and included four cohorts of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg of CF101 and a placebo for a 12-week period. The study objectives were efficacy and safety of daily doses of CF101 administered orally in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque-type psoriasis and the efficacy endpoints were improvements in both the Psoriasis Area Sensitivity Index score, or PASI score, and the Physicians’ Global Assessment score, or PGA score. We concluded that CF101 met such efficacy endpoints and was safe, well tolerated and effective in ameliorating disease manifestations in these patients. The patient group receiving 2.0 mg CF101 BID showed progressive improvement over the course of the 12-week study in the PGA and PASI scores. Analysis of the mean change from baseline in the PASI score at week 12 revealed a statistically significant difference between the 2.0 mg CF101 BID treated group and the placebo group (P < 0.001 versus baseline and P = 0.031 versus placebo). Analysis of the PGA score revealed that 23.5% of the patients treated with the 2.0 mg CF101 BID achieved a score of 0 or 1, in comparison to 0% in the placebo group (P < 0.05). The study also demonstrated linear improvement in patients in both PASI and PGA. See Figure 2. No drug-related serious adverse events were evident during the study.
Figure 2: Psoriasis efficacy by PGA and PASI
Set forth below are representative pictures of a patient with plaque-type psoriasis on the upper and lower back treated with 2.0 mg CF101 BID, both baseline and week 12.
A comparison between baseline and week 12 of a patient treated with 2.0 mg CF 101
In June 2010, we obtained FDA approval to conduct a Phase II/III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study of the efficacy and safety of CF101 administered daily orally in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. This clinical trial will include approximately 300 patients that will be treated for a period of six months in the United States, Europe and Israel. Based on a positive safety and efficacy interim analysis of the first 103 patients who completed 24 weeks of treatment in the trial, we decided to continue patient enrollment for the second stage of the study. The positive clinical effects of the CF101 2.0 mg BID dose relative to a placebo were observed in a variety of standard psoriasis assessment parameters, including PASI 75 and PGA scores, with the responses accumulating steadily over the 24-week treatment period. See Figure 3. We believe that this clinical data corroborates the published Phase II study results described above and confirms the dose selection, while the favorable safety profile of CF101 further supports its development for the systemic treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis. To allow the trial to meet its full objectives, the study protocol was amended to extend the CF101 2.0 mg BID and placebo administration for a period of 32 weeks.
|PGA Improvement||PASI Improvement|
|Interim data included 103 patients who were randomized to CF101 1mg, CF101 2mg and placebo and were treated for 24 weeks. On week 12 placebo were randomized to CF101 1mg or 2mg dose. PGA (left chart) - The percentage of patients presenting only slight or no clinical signs (PGA score 0-1) increased throughout the study period in the 2 mg CF101-treated group. PASI (right chart) - In the 2 mg CF101-treated group, a progressive improvement in the percentage of patients presenting PASI 75 improvement was observed.|
Figure 3: Psoriasis efficacy by PGA and PASI
Rheumatoid Arthritis: We conducted a Phase IIa blinded to dose study in 74 patients with RA, randomized to receive CF101 as a monotherapy in one of three doses—0.1 mg, 1.0 mg and 4.0 mg. The primary efficacy endpoint was ACR20 response at week 12, a criterion determined by the American College of Rheumatology that reflects 20% improvement in inflammation parameters. The study data revealed maximal response at the 1.0 mg group, showing 55.6% with ACR20, 33.3% with 50% improvement, or ACR50, and 11.5% with 70% improvement, or ACR70. CF101 administered BID for 12 weeks resulted in improvement in signs and symptoms of RA and was safe and well-tolerated. See Figure 4. Studies in the United States were conducted pursuant to an open IND which was received by the FDA in 2005.
Figure 4: Rheumatoid Arthritis efficacy by ACR
Subsequently, two Phase IIb studies with CF101 in combination with MTX were conducted. The study protocols were multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group and dose-finding to determine the safety and efficacy of daily CF101 administered orally when added to weekly MTX in patients with active RA. The objectives of both studies were improvement in ACR20, ACR50, ACR70 and DAS28, or the Disease Activity Score of 28 Joints, and EULAR, or the European League Against Rheumatism, response criteria, as well as a positive safety profile. The trials’ primary endpoints were both ACR20.
The first Phase IIb trial showed that the combined treatment had an excellent safety profile, but no significant ACR20 response was observed between the RA group treated with CF101 and MTX and the group treated with MTX alone (the placebo group). However, the ACR50, ACR70 and the EULAR Good Values in the combined treatment group were higher than those of the MTX placebo group. The study also indicated that the 1.0 mg CF101 dose was the most favorable dose, i.e., the dose yielded the highest ACR50 and EULAR Good Values as compared to the MTX placebo group. The most commonly reported adverse events in this study included nausea, dizziness, headache and common bacterial and viral infections and infestations.
Following a decision of our Clinical Advisory Board in October 2007, an additional Phase IIb study was initiated. This study was conducted in medical centers in Europe and Israel and included 230 patients who received the drug orally BID (0.1 and 1.0 mg CF101 tablets plus MTX versus a placebo, which was MTX alone) for 12 weeks. On April 30, 2009, we published preliminary results of the Phase IIb study, which were later confirmed as the final results, also indicating that the study’s objectives were not achieved. The most commonly reported adverse events in this study included nausea, myalgia and dizziness.
The two Phase IIb studies failed to achieve the primary endpoint of ACR20. A cross study analysis of the three RA clinical studies revealed that in the first Phase IIa study, where CF101 had been administered as a standalone drug, A3AR had been over-expressed in the patients’ PBMCs prior to CF101 treatment, whereas A3AR had not been over-expressed in the Phase IIb patient population. We believe, based on the foregoing data, that there may be a direct and statistically significant correlation between A3AR over-expression at baseline and patients’ response to CF101, and that CF101 should be administered as a standalone drug and not in combination with MTX. Furthermore, the correlation between A3AR expression levels prior to treatment and patients’ response to the drug suggest that the A3AR may be a predictive biomarker to be analyzed prior to CF101 treatment. See Figures 5 and 6.
Figure 5: Direct correlation between A3AR at baseline and response to CF101
Figure 6: Direct correlation between A3AR at baseline and response to CF101
Based on the results of the two Phase IIb studies, we conducted an additional Phase IIb clinical study with CF101 as a stand-alone, monotherapy treatment and not in combination with MTX. The trial was a 12-week multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study involving 79 patients to determine the safety and efficacy of CF101 administered orally daily in patients with active RA and elevated baseline expression levels of the A3AR in PBMCs. Enrolled patients had high baseline A3AR biomarker expression (determined at 1.5-fold over a predetermined age-matched standard). This selection criteria was made following the findings during previous Phase IIa and IIb RA studies showing a positive correlation between A3AR expression at baseline and patients’ response to the drug, potentially rendering A3AR expression as a predictive biomarker. The primary objectives of this study are to determine the efficacy of oral CF101 when administered daily as a standalone treatment for 12 weeks to patients with active RA and elevated baseline expression levels of the A3AR in the patients’ PBMCs, in comparison to a placebo treatment, and to assess the safety of daily oral CF101 under the circumstances of the trial. In the study, CF101 met all primary efficacy endpoints, showing statistically significant superiority over placebo in reducing signs and symptoms of RA as compared to the placebo. The treatment had an ACR20 response rate of 49% for CF101 compared to 25% for placebo (p=0.035), an ACR50 response rate of 19% for CF101 compared to 9% for placebo, and an ACR70 response rate of 11% for CF101 arm compared to 3% for placebo. Similar to our observations in the previously reported CF101 psoriasis trials, the response of patients with RA was cumulative over time, suggesting a consistent anti-inflammatory effect of CF101. Moreover, half of the RA patients treated with CF101 showed clinically meaningful improvement. CF101 was very well-tolerated and showed no evidence of immunosuppression, and there were no severe treatment-emergent adverse events during the study. A subgroup analysis of 16 patients with no prior systemic therapy showed a dramatic increase in the response showing ACR20 of 75%, ACR50 50%, and ACR70 50%. We believe this may be related to the fact that in this patient population there is a full receptor expression since they had not been treated earlier with any systemic drugs.
DES: A Phase II study in DES was conducted by Can-Fite after discovering that patients in the Phase IIa study for another condition also experienced improvement in DES symptoms. The study prompted an application for two patents relating to DES and Sjörgen’s Syndrome. Since then a Phase II study of CF101 in patients with moderate to severe DES was successfully completed, meeting its primary endpoint and demonstrating the drug’s ability to improve signs of ocular surface inflammation in these patients. The trial was a multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study with 76 patients (39 CF101 and 37 placebo). Patients were treated orally with either 1.0 mg CF101 pills or matching vehicle-filled placebo pills, BID for 12 weeks, followed by a two-week post-treatment observation. The primary endpoint of the Phase II trial was based on an improvement of more than 25% over baseline at week 12 in one of the following parameters: (i) tear break-up time, or BUT; (ii) superficial punctate keratitis (epithelial staining of the cornea) assessed by fluorescein staining, or FS, results; and (iii) Schirmer tear test 1 results, which are assessed by using paper strips inserted into the eye for several minutes to measure the production of tears. The results of the Phase II trial demonstrated the ability of CF101 to improve signs of ocular surface inflammation of the patients studied. The CF101-treated group experienced a statistically significant increase in the proportion of patients who achieved more than 25% improvement in FS and in the clearance of FS, as compared to the placebo group. See Figure 7.
|CF101-treated group (blue line) as compared to the placebo group (pink line) over a 12-week dosing period. The difference between the groups is apparent and significant (p=0.006). The measurement made at week 14, which is two weeks post-dosing, shows a clear reduction in effect. This deterioration of the effect post-dosing is a sign of the anti-inflammatory effect of CF101, which was reduced in correlation with the cessation of dosing.|
Figure 7: DES efficacy as determined utilizing FS
Clinical laboratory safety tests included ophthalmic examinations, IOP measurements, electrocardiographic evaluations, vital sign measurements, and monitoring of adverse events. CF101 was well-tolerated and exhibited an excellent safety profile with no serious adverse events. No clinically significant changes in vital signs, electrocardiograms, blood chemistry or hematology values were observed. However, adverse events resulting in discontinuation of the study were observed in two patients: myalgia and recurrent corneal erosion. The frequency of adverse events was comparable in both treated groups. The most commonly reported adverse events included constipation, headache, palpitations, itching, abdominal pain, arthralgia, myalgia, fatigue and dry mouth.
Although the Phase II DES trial was not designed to assess the drug effect on IOP, the latter was tested as a safety parameter and at week 12, the CF101-treated group had a 1.1-mmHg, or 6%, decrease from baseline, which was statistically significant (p=0.048) when compared with the placebo. See Figure 8.
The study results of the completed Phase II clinical trial for CF101 for the treatment of DES were published in “Ophthalmology,” which is one of the leading journals in the field.
Figure 8: IOP decrease observed in the DES Phase II study
Following the positive Phase II study we initiated a Phase III DES trial, under an IND with the FDA which was conducted by OphthaliX in the United States, Europe and Israel. The randomized, double-masked Phase III clinical trial enrolled 237 patients with moderate-to-severe DES who were randomized to receive two oral doses of CF101 (0.1 and 1.0 mg) and a placebo, for a period of 24 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was complete clearing of corneal staining. In December 2013, we announced the results of this Phase III study of CF101 for the treatment of DES. In the study, CF101 did not meet the primary efficacy endpoint of complete clearing of corneal staining, nor the secondary efficacy endpoints. Nonetheless, CF101 was found to be well tolerated. OphthaliX is evaluating the results of this study and intends to provide an update on its plans for the DES indication at a later date. OphthaliX is also planning to conduct a retrospective analysis of the DES Phase III Study data to determine if there is a correlation between the CF101 target, the A3AR, expression and patients’ response to the drug. This analysis is based on recent positive data from a Phase IIb RA study where patients were enrolled based on the expression level of the A3 adenosine receptor biomarker. In order to perform the retrospective analysis, blood samples will be collected from patients who participated in the Phase III DES study and analyzed for the expression of this biomarker.
Glaucoma: We believe that the statistically significant decrease in IOP in the Phase II trial for DES, although observed in subjects without ocular hypertension, is clinically significant and indicates that CF101 may also have potential as a glaucoma therapy, as the main goal of glaucoma therapy is to reduce IOP. This finding led to a patent application for the use of CF101 for lowering IOP. This result, together with the neuro-protective and anti-inflammatory effects that have been demonstrated in our studies and the studies of others, warrant rapid progression into clinical study in this indication and a Phase II study in patients with glaucoma or related syndromes of ocular hypertension is currently ongoing in Israel and Europe via OphthaliX. This trial is a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the safety and efficacy of daily CF101 administered orally in subjects with elevated IOP. The objectives of this study are to determine the effects of oral CF101 in lowering IOP when administered BID for 16 weeks in subjects with elevated IOP and the safety of oral CF101 in this subject population. This trial is being performed in two segments. In the first segment, subjects are being randomized to receive either CF101 1.0 mg or a matching placebo, given orally every 12 hours for 16 weeks. OphthaliX is enrolling 44 subjects in the first segment, randomized in a 3:1 ratio to CF101 1.0 mg or to the placebo. At the conclusion of the first segment, a Data Review Committee, or DRC, is to review safety and efficacy data and advise on progression of the trial to the second segment. The second segment, if conducted, will enroll up to approximately 88 subjects in up to three dose groups (CF101 1.0 mg, CF101 2.0 mg or the placebo every 12 hours) randomized in a 3:3:2 ratio. At its discretion, the DRC may also recommend increasing enrollment in the CF101 1.0 mg group or other changes to the protocol design. In May 2010, we announced that the Israeli Ministry of Health approved the study protocol. We subsequently initiated patient enrollment. The conclusion of the first segment of the study is expected in the third quarter of 2014. We have not yet filed an IND for this indication as CF101 for the treatment of glaucoma is not currently being clinically tested in the United States and there are no near-term plans to do so.
Additional Developments with CF101
Former pre-clinical pharmacology studies conducted by us in collaboration with a worldwide leading laboratory in uveitis research at the National Eye Institute at the U.S National Institute of Health, or the NIH, under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, demonstrated that CF101 was effective in inhibiting the development of posterior uveitis in an experimental animal model. Additional preclinical studies conducted by OphthaliX, showed that CF101 was effective in treating anterior uveitis in experimental animal models.
The efficacy of CF101 in treating both anterior and posterior uveitis in experimental animal models supports further testing of CF101 for the treatment of patients with either anterior or posterior uveitis. We, together with the NIH, have applied for a patent for the use of CF101 for the treatment of uveitis. We have licensed our share of this intellectual property to OphthaliX and together with OphthaliX are in discussions with the NIH to obtain an exclusive license on the NIH’s share of this intellectual property. OphthaliX submitted a protocol for a Phase II uveitis study in Europe and Israel to investigate the efficacy and safety of CF101 in 45 patients with active, sight-threatening, noninfectious intermediate or posterior uveitis, who will be treated with either CF101 or a placebo for a period of six months. The primary endpoint of this study is the proportion of subjects whose vitreous haze score improves by two or more grades on the “Miami Scale” (Vitreous Haze: Miami Scale 2). OphthaliX is currently reviewing its clinical development plans and intends to provide an update on the development for this indication on a later stage. Neither the OphthaliX nor we have filed an IND for this indication as CF101 for the treatment of uveitis is not currently being clinically tested in the United States and there are no near-term plans to do so.
According to the Arthritis Foundation, OA is the most common arthritic disease. Currently, there is a shortage of effective drugs for treating OA patients. CF101 has induced a significant anti-inflammatory effect in experimental animal models with respect to the treatment of OA and, as such, we are currently preparing for a Phase II study. We have not yet filed an IND for this indication as CF101 for the treatment of OA is not currently being clinically tested in the United States and there are no near-term plans to do so.
Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease that may affect any portion of the gastrointestinal tract, causing a wide variety of symptoms. It primarily causes abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting and weight loss, however, it may also cause complications outside the gastrointestinal tract, such as skin rashes, arthritis, inflammation of the eye, tiredness and lack of concentration. Pre-clinical pharmacology studies that we have conducted demonstrated the efficacy of CF101 for the treatment of Crohn’s disease. We do not presently have plans for the treatment of Crohn’s disease.
CF102 is our second drug candidate and is under development for the treatment of HCC and HCV. CF102 is also a small, orally bioavailable molecule, and an A3AR agonist, with high affinity and selectivity to the A3AR. In comparison to the expression in adjacent normal liver tissue, the A3AR is over-expressed in tumor tissues of patients with HCC, and the over-expression is also reflected in the patients’ PBMCs. A3AR over-expression in the patients’ tumor cells and PBMCs is attributed to high expression of certain A3AR transcription factors. The binding of CF102 to the A3AR results in down-regulation, or a decrease in the quantity of a cellular component, such as the number of receptors on a cell’s surface, of certain A3AR transcription factors. Our studies have shown that this down-regulation leads to apoptosis of HCC cells. In our pre-clinical and clinical studies, CF102 demonstrated anti-cancer, anti-viral and liver protective effects. As a result, we believe that CF102 can be used to treat a variety of oncological and liver-related diseases and viruses. In February 2012, the FDA granted an orphan drug status for the active moiety, or the part of the drug that is responsible for the physiological or pharmacological action of the drug substance, of CF102 for the treatment of HCC. An orphan drug designation is a special designation by the FDA for drug approval and marketing. The special designation is granted to companies that develop a given drug for unique populations and for incurable and relatively rare diseases. The orphan drug designation program provides orphan status to drugs and biologics which are intended for the safe and effective treatment, diagnosis or prevention of rare diseases or disorders that affect fewer than 200,000 people in the United States. Orphan drug designations have enabled companies to achieve medical breakthroughs that may not have otherwise been achieved due to the economics of drug research and development as this status lessens some of the regulatory burdens, for approval, including statistical requirements for efficacy, safety and stability, in an effort to maintain development momentum. Orphan drug designation also results in additional marketing exclusivity and could result in certain financial incentives.
Set forth below are general descriptions of the diseases with respect to which CF102 has underwent or is currently undergoing clinical trials.
HCC: HCC is an oncological disease characterized by malignant tumors that grow on the surface or inside of the liver. This type of tumor is refractory to chemotherapy and to other anti-cancer agents. HCC, like any other cancer, develops when there is a mutation to the cellular machinery that causes the cell to replicate at a higher rate and/or results in the cell avoiding apoptosis. Chronic infections of Hepatitis B and/or C can aid the development of HCC by repeatedly causing the body’s own immune system to attack the liver cells, some of which are infected by the virus. While this constant cycle of damage followed by repair can lead to mistakes during repair which in turn lead to carcinogenesis, this hypothesis is more applicable, at present, to HCV. Chronic HCV causes HCC through cirrhosis. In chronic Hepatitis B, however, the integration of the virus into infected cells can directly induce a non-cirrhotic liver to develop HCC. Alternatively, repeated consumption of large amounts of ethanol can have a similar effect.
Hepatitis C: HCV is an infectious disease affecting primarily the liver, caused by the Hepatitis C virus. The infection is often asymptomatic, but chronic infection can lead to scarring of the liver and ultimately to cirrhosis, which is generally apparent after many years, and chronic liver disease. The virus also increases the chance for HCC development. In some cases, those with cirrhosis will develop liver failure, liver cancer or life-threatening esophageal and gastric varices, or dilated submucosal veins, which can be life-threatening. HCV is spread primarily by blood-to-blood contact often associated with intravenous drug use, poorly sterilized medical equipment, transfusions, and sexual intercourse.
Pre-Clinical Studies of CF102
We conducted several pre-clinical studies, including studies of toxicity. The results indicated that CF102 was well- tolerated with no adverse effects. In these studies, we evaluated the toxicity, stability, metabolism and other safety parameters of CF102 at doses much higher than the doses that we currently administer to humans in our clinical trials of CF102. In pre-clinical pharmacology studies, CF102 inhibited the growth of HCC via the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. In addition, in collaboration with leading virology labs, we observed that CF102 inhibited viral replication of HCV through the down-regulation of viral proteins. Both of these findings served as a basis to further explore development of this drug for HCC and HCV. Moreover, our pre-clinical studies demonstrated that CF102 acted to stimulate liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, or removal of a part of the liver, and as such, we applied for a patent for this treatment.
Clinical Studies of CF102
The information discussed below is based on the various studies conducted by Can-Fite with CF102, including clinical studies in patients with oncological and liver-related diseases and viruses.
Phase I Clinical Study
CF102 completed a Phase I double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, ascending single dose trial to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of orally administered CF102 in healthy volunteers. The study was conducted in the United States under an open IND. CF102 was found to be safe and well-tolerated with a half-life time of 12 hours. See Figure 10.
Figure 10. CF102 Pharmacokinetic profile
Phase I/II Clinical Study
CF102 completed two Phase I/II studies in Israel, one in patients with HCC and another in patients with HCV. The HCC Phase I/II study was an open-label, dose-escalation study evaluating the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of orally administered CF102 in patients with advanced HCC. The primary objectives of the study were to determine the safety and tolerability, dose-limiting toxicities, maximum tolerated dose, and recommended Phase II dose of orally administered CF102 in patients with advanced HCC; and to assess the repeat-dose pharmacokinetics behavior of CF102 in those patients. The secondary objectives were to document any observed therapeutic effect of CF102 in patients with HCC and to evaluate the relationship between PBMCs and the A3AR expression at baseline, as a biomarker, and the effects of CF102 in patients with HCC. The study included 18 patients, nine of which were also carriers of HCV. The initial dose of CF102 was 1.0 mg BID, with planned dose escalations in subsequent cohorts to 5.0 and 25.0 mg BID. This Phase I/II study achieved its objectives, showing a good safety profile, or no material differences versus a placebo with respect to observed and patient-indicated side effects, for CF102 and a linear pharmacokinetic drug profile, with no dose-limiting toxicities at any dose level. The median overall survival time for the patients in this study was 7.8 months, which is encouraging data considering that (i) 67% of the patient population in the study had previously progressed on Nexavar, produced by Onyx Pharmaceuticals and Bayer, and that CF102 was a second line therapy for these patients and (ii) 28% of the patient population were Child-Pugh Class B patients (patients classified on the Child Pugh scoring system for chronic liver disease as having significantly impaired liver function) whose overall survival time is usually 3.5 to 5.5 months. Accordingly, we may also consider CF102 as a drug to be developed for this patient sub-population of Child-Pugh Class B patients. CF102 had no adverse effect on routine measures of liver function over a six-month period in 12 patients treated for at least that duration. These findings are consistent with our pre-clinical CF102 data which demonstrated a protective effect on normal liver tissue in an experimental model of liver inflammation. As such, CF102 may potentially be a safer alternative to patients with cirrhosis and/or hepatic impairment. The study also demonstrated a direct relationship between A3AR expression at baseline and patients’ response to CF102, suggesting A3AR as a predictive biological marker. We also observed a decrease in the viral load of seven out of nine patients who were also carriers of HCV. The most commonly reported adverse events included loss of appetite, ascites, nausea, diarrhea, constipation and pain. However, many of these events are expected in a population of patients with advanced HCC. The most frequently reported drug-related adverse events included diarrhea, fatigue, loss of appetite, pain and weakness.
Our second Phase I/II study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study evaluating the safety, tolerability, biological activity, and pharmacokinetics of orally administered CF102 in 32 subjects with chronic HCV genotype 1. Eligible subjects were assigned in a 3:1 ratio (eight subjects in each cohort) to receive QD or BID treatment (1.0, 5.0 and 25.0 mg of CF102) for 15 days with oral CF102 or with a placebo. Dose escalation occurred in four sequential cohorts. The study’s primary objectives were to determine the safety and tolerability of orally administered CF102 in patients with chronic HCV genotype 1, to assess the effects on HCV load during 15 days of treatment with CF102 and to assess the repeat-dose pharmacokinetic behavior of CF102 under the conditions of this trial. The secondary objective of this trial was to perform an exploratory evaluation of the relationship between A3AR in PBMCs at baseline and the clinical effects of CF102 on the study’s patients. Following the decrease in HCV load that had been observed in HCV patients treated with CF102 in the parallel HCC study and the good safety profile of CF102, we received Israeli Institutional Review Board approval to extend the treatment period of the Phase I/II in patients with HCV to four months with the 1.0 mg dose vs. the placebo. The results of this Phase I/II HCV study demonstrated safety and a linear pharmacokinetic drug profile, however, no significant decrease in the viral load was observed. Notwithstanding, we did observe in the parallel HCC study that seven out of the nine patients with both HCC and HCV experienced a decrease in viral load and that these seven patients were treated with higher CF102 dosages than what was administered to the patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 only, and not HCC, possibly explaining the difference in results. The most commonly reported adverse events included loss of appetite, ascites, nausea, diarrhea, constipation and pain. However, many of these events are expected in a population of patients with advanced HCV. The most frequently reported drug-related adverse events included diarrhea, fatigue, loss of appetite, pain and weakness.
We are currently preparing for a Phase II study in HCC patients. In January 2013, as part of our preparatory work for such study, we announced that we believe that the optimal drug dose for the upcoming study is CF102 25.0 mg. This does was found to be the most effective dose out of the three dosages tested (1.0 mg, 5.0 mg and 25.0 mg) in the previous Phase I/II study. We filed a patent application protecting such optimal dose of CF102 for HCC. A publication summarizing the results of the Phase I/II study was published in “The Oncologist”, a leading oncology scientific journal. We also highlighted that one patient has been treated with CF102 for over three years, and is continuing to be treated, with CF102. Also as part of the Phase II study, we plan to examine the viral load of HCC patients who are also infected with HCV. If we observe a decrease in the viral load in the HCV sub-population during this forthcoming study, we intend to commence a separate Phase II study for the HCV indication.
We plan to conduct the Phase II study in Israel, Europe and the US and it will include 78 subjects that will be dosed with the drug as a second-line treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with Child-Pugh Class B cirrhosis. The study will investigate the efficacy and safety of CF102 vs. placebo (ratio 2:1). In March 2014, the study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board at the Rabin Medical Center in Israel.
Additional Developments with CF102
In April 2011, we announced that, in laboratory study, CF102 inhibited the reproduction of the JC virus, a type of polyomavirus, which is dormant in approximately 70% to 90% of the world population. However, in patients treated with biological drugs, including monoclonal antibody therapeutics, such as anti-TNFs or anti-CD20, JC virus replication may occur, resulting in development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or PML, which is characterized by progressive damage or inflammation of the white matter of the brain and, eventually, death. The ability of CF102 to suppress the JC Virus culture, as indicated in the laboratory study, may indicate that it may be used for the treatment of PML as a combination therapy with biological drugs. As CF102 is already in various stages of clinical development for other indications, its efficacy for this new application may be tested in clinical trials.
The allosteric modulator, CF602, is our third drug candidate in its pipeline. CF602 is an orally bioavailable small molecule, which enhances the affinity of the natural ligand, adenosine, to its A3AR. The advantage of this molecule is its capability to target specific areas where adenosine levels are increased. Normal body cells and tissues are refractory to allosteric modulators. This approach complements the basic platform technology of Can-Fite, utilizing the Gi coupled protein A3AR as a potent target in inflammatory diseases. CF602 has demonstrated proof of concept for anti-inflammatory activity in in vitro and in vivo studies performed by us. Subject to having sufficient financial resources, we intend to conduct required pre-clinical studies for this drug candidate. After completion of all pre-clinical testing, we intend to file an IND with respect to CF602.
During clinical studies conducted with our product candidates, other than CF602, patients suffering from sexual dysfunction reported that they returned to normal functioning following the treatment with such drugs. We believe that these findings are correlated with our platform technology, which is the targeting of the A3AR. Adenosine, like nitric oxide, is a potent and short-lived vaso-relaxant that functions via intracellular signaling (in particular, through cAMP) to promote smooth muscle relaxation. Recent studies conducted by others show that adenosine functions to relax the corpus cavernosum and thereby promote penile erection. We have filed a patent application in Israel for the treatment of sexual dysfunction utilizing our drug candidates and are planning to develop CF602 for this indication as it uses the same platform technology and becomes active through the same mechanism as the rest of our drug candidates. GlobalData valued the erectile dysfunction therapeutic market at $2.9 billion in 2010 reducing to $2.6 billion by 2018, which mainly includes the drugs Viagra, Cialis and Levitra.
The following are summary descriptions of certain in-licensing agreements to which we are a party. The descriptions provided below do not purport to be complete and are qualified in their entirety by the complete agreements, which are attached as exhibits to this Annual Report on Form 20-F.
On January 29, 2003, we entered into a license agreement with the NIH, or the NIH Agreement, through the U.S. Public Health Service. Pursuant to the NIH Agreement, we were granted an exclusive license for the use of a family of U.S. and European patents and patent applications relating to CF101, CF102 and other small molecules and for the use, sale, production and distribution of products derived from such patents around the world. Subject to certain conditions, we may sublicense the NIH Agreement. However, the NIH retains a paid-up, worldwide license to practice the licensed inventions for government purposes and may require us to grant sublicenses when necessary to fulfill health or safety needs.
According to the NIH Agreement, we are committed to pay royalties as follows: (i) a $225,000 signing payment; (ii) a minimum non-refundable annual payment of $50,000; (iii) 4% to 5.5% of our total net revenues from sales of licensed products or from conducting tests with respect to CF101, CF102 and the other licensed small molecules worldwide, on a consolidated basis, out of which 1.75%-2.75% may be offset against royalties that we are required to pay another third party; (iv) individual payments ranging from $25,000 to $500,000 subject to meeting certain drug development milestones, including the initiation of certain clinical trials with respect to the licensed products; and (v) additional payments totaling 20% of all monetary consideration received from sublicensees, except for royalties received on any such sublicensee’s net revenues from sales of the licensed products, out of which 2% may be offset against royalties that we are required to pay another third party. As of December 31, 2013, we have paid approximately $975,000 in royalties to the NIH in connection with the NIH Agreement. We estimate that we will further pay a total of approximately $475,000 in milestone payments to the NIH in connection with the NIH Agreement until its expiration.
The NIH Agreement sets certain development milestones with which we must comply. On August 4, 2005 and February 4, 2013, amendments were signed with the NIH to extend such milestone dates. The amendments had no effect on the originally determined license terms.
The NIH Agreement will remain in effect until the last patent licensed under the NIH Agreement expires on June 30, 2015, unless it is earlier terminated by one of the parties, according to the NIH Agreement. The termination rights include, but are not limited, our right to terminate upon 60-days’ prior written notice to the NIH, the NIH’s right to terminate if we become insolvent or bankruptcy proceedings are initiated against us, and NIH’s right to terminate upon our default in the performance of any material obligation and our failure to cure such default within 90 days of written notice of such default.
In addition, on January 24, 2006, we entered into a cooperative research and development agreement, or CRADA, with the NIH whereby we received an option to obtain a license from the NIH for any new group of A3AR agonists to be developed under terms that will be determined between the parties on the date of exercise of such option. In connection with the CRADA and the option granted thereunder, we signed a commercial evaluation license agreement with the NIH on April 17, 2007, and selected one molecule, CF502 (or MRS3558) to evaluate. However, at a later stage, we decided not to continue the development of CF502, terminated the commercial evaluation license agreement and did not exercise the option granted under the CRADA.
Leiden University Agreements
On November 2, 2009, we entered into a license agreement, or the Leiden University Agreement, with Leiden University. Leiden University is affiliated with the NIH and is the joint owner with the NIH of the patents licensed pursuant to the Leiden University Agreement. The Leiden University Agreement grants an exclusive license for the use of the patents of several compounds, including CF602, that comprise certain allosteric compound drugs, and for the use, sale, production and distribution of products derived from such patents in the territory, i.e., China and certain countries in Europe (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Holland and England). Subject to certain conditions, we may sublicense the Leiden University Agreement. However, the U.S. government has an irrevocable, royalty-free, paid-up right to practice the patent rights throughout the territory on behalf of itself or any foreign government or international organization pursuant to any existing or future treaty or agreement to which the U.S. government is a signatory and the U.S. government may require us to grant sublicenses when necessary to fulfill health or safety needs.
Pursuant to the Leiden University Agreement, we are committed to make the following payments: (i) a one-time concession commission of 25,000 Euros; (ii) annual royalties of 10,000 Euros until clinical trials commence; (iii) 2% to 3% of net sales value, as defined in the Leiden University Agreement, received by us; (iv) royalties of up to 850,000 Euros based on certain progress milestones in the clinical stages of the products which are the subject of the patent under the Leiden University Agreement; and (v) if we sublicense the agreement, we will provide Leiden University royalties at a rate of 2-3% of net sales value, as defined in the Leiden University Agreement, and 10% of certain consideration received for granting the sublicense. In the event that we transfer to a transferee the aspect of our business involving the Leiden University Agreement, we must pay to Leiden University an assignment royalty of 10% of the consideration received for the transfer of the agreement. However, a merger, consolidation or any other change in ownership will not be viewed as an assignment of the agreement. In addition, we have agreed to bear all costs associated with the prosecution of the patents and patent applications to which we are granted a license under the Leiden University Agreement. As of December 31, 2013, we have paid approximately 75,000 Euros in royalties to Leiden University in connection with the Leiden University Agreement.
The Leiden University Agreement expires when the last of the patents expires in each country of the territory, unless earlier terminated in accordance with the terms of the Leiden University Agreement. The last of such patents is set to expire on 2027. The termination rights of the parties include, but are not limited to, (i) the non-defaulting party’s right to terminate if the defaulting party does not cure within 90 days of written notice identifying the default and requesting remedy of the same; and (ii) Leiden University’s right to terminate if we become insolvent, have a receiver appointed over our assets or initiate a winding-up. In addition, Leiden University may terminate the agreement when it is determined, in consultation with NIH, that termination is necessary to alleviate health and safety needs and certain other similar circumstances.
The following are summary descriptions of certain out-licensing agreements to which we are a party. The descriptions provided below do not purport to be complete and are qualified in their entirety by the complete agreements, which are attached as exhibits to this Annual Report on Form 20-F.
On September 22, 2006, we executed an exclusive license agreement, which was amended in December 2006, with Seikagaku Corporation, a Japanese public corporation, or SKK, for the use, development and marketing of CF101 in Japan with respect to inflammatory indicators, except for ophthalmic disease indicators. The agreement with SKK as amended, or the Seikagaku Agreement, also grants to SKK an exclusive, royalty-free license to use certain of our trademarks, as determined from time to time, in connection with the distribution, marketing, promotion and sale of any products derived from CF101 pursuant to the Seikagaku Agreement. Under the terms of the Seikagaku Agreement, we cannot prevent SKK from making financial, operational or strategic decisions associated with the use, development or marketing of CF101 in Japan.
The Seikagaku Agreement contemplates the creation of a four member joint committee consisting of two members from each party with the purpose of serving as a joint source of experience and knowledge in CF101 development and to facilitate communication and coordination between the parties with respect to such development. The joint committee, among other things specifically identified in the Seikagaku Agreement, provides to the parties opinions, proposals, ideas and updates with respect to the CF101 development processes conducted separately by each party.
Under the Seikagaku Agreement, we are entitled to up-front and milestone payments of up to $17 million (of which $2 million is attributable to our participation in certain research and development activities), annual payments of $500,000 and at least an additional $1 million in milestone payments if SKK pursues a second indication (the current indication is RA). We will also be entitled to royalties in an amount between 7-12% of annual net sales in Japan subject to certain sales criteria. In accordance with the Seikagaku Agreement, we received an up-front payment of $3.0 million in 2006, a milestone payment of $1.0 million in 2008 and $0.5 million per year from 2007 through 2011 as an annual minimum royalty payment (for an aggregate of $2.5 million). In addition to the amounts above, we will be entitled to additional payments based on sales of raw materials to SKK for the purpose of developing, producing and marketing CF101. If SKK decides to produce the raw materials itself, we will be entitled to $1.0 million and an additional manufacturing royalty payment. Furthermore, we will be entitled to receive additional payments if SKK requests information regarding the results and reports of other clinical and non-clinical studies conducted by us and we will be required to make certain payments to SKK if we request results and reports from their clinical and non-clinical studies. These payments will be calculated based on a percentage of the costs of such clinical and non-clinical studies, as the case may be.
Pursuant to a representative agreement, dated September 22, 2006, we have paid or are committed to pay, 5% of the above amounts actually received as a brokerage commission to Fuji Techno Interface Ltd., the Japanese company that brokered the Seikagaku Agreement. The Seikagaku Agreement is effective until SKK completes all payments required by the agreement, unless it is earlier terminated as a result of a material breach not cured within the specified time frame or as a result of the initiation of bankruptcy or insolvency- related proceedings.
Kwang Dong Agreements
On December 22, 2008, we entered into a license agreement with Kwang Dong Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, a South Korean limited company, or KD, and the Kwang Dong License Agreement, respectively, for the use, development and marketing of CF101 in the Republic of Korea with respect to RA. In addition, the Kwang Dong License Agreement grants to KD an exclusive, royalty-free license to use certain of our trademarks, as determined from time to time, in connection with the distribution, marketing, promotion and sale of any products derived from CF101 pursuant to the Kwang Dong License Agreement.
The Kwang Dong License Agreement also provides for the creation of a four member joint committee consisting of two members from each party for the purpose of serving as a joint source of experience and knowledge in CF101 development and to facilitate communication and coordination between the parties with respect to such development. The joint committee will, among other things specifically identified in the Kwang Dong License Agreement, provide to the parties opinions, proposals, ideas and updates with respect to the CF101 development processes conducted separately by each party.
According to the Kwang Dong License Agreement, we are entitled to receive or have received the following payments: (i) a non-refundable amount of $300,000 paid within 30 days of the effective date of the agreement; (ii) an amount of up to $1.2 million based on our compliance with certain milestones, including but not limited to, the conclusion of the Phase II clinical trial for CF101 for treating RA and the receipt of various regulatory authorizations; and (iii) annual royalties of 7% of annual net sales of the licensed drug in the Republic of Korea. In addition to the amounts detailed above, we will be entitled to additional payments based on sales of raw materials to KD for the purpose of developing, producing and marketing CF101.
The Kwang Dong License Agreement is effective until KD completes all payments required thereunder, unless it is earlier terminated as a result of a material breach not cured within the specified time frame, the breach by KD of the Kwang Dong Purchase Agreement or the initiation of bankruptcy or insolvency related proceedings.
Pursuant to a share purchase agreement entered into with KD at the same time as the Kwang Dong License Agreement, KD purchased 95,304 of our ordinary shares, representing approximately 1.0 % of our share capital on a fully diluted basis, as of the date of the purchase. The shares were purchased for a premium of 50% on the shares’ average closing price for the ten days preceding December 11, 2008, or a purchase price of NIS 0.455 per share.
After the TASE approved such shares for the listing for trade on January 5, 2009, the shares were allocated to KD and the transaction was finalized in January 2009. As of December 31, 2013, KD had paid us approximately $0.8 million, which represents milestone payments pursuant to the Kwang Dong License Agreement, an advance of certain amounts to become due under the Kwang Dong License Agreement and the purchase price for the shares.
In connection with the spin-off transaction described below in “Item 10. Additional Information—Material Contracts—OphthaliX Agreements”, on November 21, 2011, we entered into a license agreement, or the Eye-Fite Agreement, with Eye-Fite according to which we (i) granted Eye-Fite a sole and exclusive worldwide license for the use of CF101 solely in the field of ophthalmic diseases and patent rights which we received under the NIH Agreement, with respect to CF101 in the field of ophthalmic diseases for research, development, commercialization and marketing throughout the world and (ii) assigned to Eye-Fite our rights, title and interest in and to any and all INDs to CF101 in the ophthalmic field. As consideration for the grant of the license, we received 999 ordinary shares of Eye-Fite, in addition to the one share we already had, which resulted in us owning all of the issued and outstanding shares of Eye-Fite, all of which were transferred to OphthaliX in connection with this transaction. In addition, Eye-Fite must, for the duration of the NIH Agreement, make the following payments to the NIH: (i) a nonrefundable minimum annual royalty of $25,000, (ii) earned royalties of 4.0% to 5.5% on net sales in territories in where such patents exist and (iii) individual payments ranging from $25,000 to $500,000 upon the achievement of various development milestones for each indication. Eye-Fite will also be required to make payments to the NIH of 20% of sublicensing revenues, excluding royalties and net of the required milestone payments. The payments set forth above represent our liabilities to the NIH under to the NIH Agreement, which pursuant to the Eye-Fite Agreement, Eye-Fite is obligated to make to the NIH.
If Eye-Fite fails to make a required payment to the NIH, Can-Fite will be entitled to terminate the license granted to Eye-Fite under the Eye-Fite Agreement upon 30 days’ prior written notice. The Eye-Fite Agreement will remain in effect until the expiration of the last of the patents licensed thereunder, unless earlier terminated by one of the parties in accordance with its terms. Can-Fite may terminate the Eye-Fite Agreement upon customary bankruptcy and insolvency events of Eye-Fite and upon Eye-Fite’s material breach of the Eye-Fite Agreement, upon 30 days’ prior written notice. Eye-Fite may terminate the Eye-Fite Agreement upon three months’ prior written notice for any reason and upon 30 days’ prior written notice for Can-Fite’s material breach of the Eye-Fite Agreement. All inventions resulting from the development and commercialization of CF101 under the Eye-Fite Agreement belong to Can-Fite, whether invented solely by Can-Fite, solely by Eye-Fite or by both entities. However, the Eye-Fite Agreement also grants Eye-Fite an exclusive license to use any such inventions in the field of ophthalmic diseases around the world for no additional consideration.
Total Revenues by Category of Activity and Geographic Markets
|(in thousands, USD)|
All revenues have been generated from payments received pursuant to our out-licensing agreements with SKK and KD with respect to CF101. See “Item 4—Information on the Company—Business Overview—Out-Licensing Agreements”. We expect to generate future revenues through our current and potential future out-licensing arrangements with respect to CF101, as well as through future out-licensing arrangements with respect to our other product candidates, i.e., CF102 and CF602, though there can be no assurances as to the timing or amount of any future revenues, if any.
Our business and operations are generally not affected by seasonal fluctuations or factors.
Raw Materials and Suppliers
We believe that the raw materials that we require to manufacture CF101, CF102 and CF602 are widely available from numerous suppliers and are generally considered to be generic industrial chemical supplies. We do not rely on a single or unique supplier for the current production of any therapeutic small molecule in our pipeline.
We are currently manufacturing our active pharmaceutical ingredient, or API, through a leading Chinese contract research organization, or CRO. The relevant suppliers of our drug products are compliant with both current Good Manufacturing Practices, or cGMP, and current Good Laboratory Practices, or cGLP, and allow us to manufacture drug products for our current clinical trials. We anticipate that we will continue to rely on third parties to produce our drug products for clinical trials and commercialization.
There can be no assurance that our drug candidates, if approved, can be manufactured in sufficient commercial quantities, in compliance with regulatory requirements and at an acceptable cost. We and our contract manufacturers are, and will be, subject to extensive governmental regulation in connection with the manufacture of any pharmaceutical products or medical devices. We and our contract manufacturers must ensure that all of the processes, methods and equipment are compliant with cGMP for drugs on an ongoing basis, as mandated by the FDA and other regulatory authorities, and conduct extensive audits of vendors, contract laboratories and suppliers.
Contract Research Organizations
We outsource certain preclinical and clinical development activities to CROs, which in pre-clinical studies work according to cGMP and cGLP. We believe our clinical CROs comply with guidelines from the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, which attempt to harmonize the FDA and the European Medicines Agency, or the EMA, regulations and guidelines. We create and implement the drug development plans and, during the preclinical and clinical phases of development, manage the CROs according to the specific requirements of the drug candidate under development.
Marketing and Sales
We do not currently have any marketing or sales capabilities. We intend to license to, or enter into strategic alliances with, larger companies in the pharmaceutical business, which are equipped to market and/or sell our products, if any, through their well-developed marketing capabilities and distribution networks. We intend to out-license some or all of our worldwide patent rights to more than one party to achieve the fullest development, marketing and distribution of any products we develop.
Our success depends in part on our ability to obtain and maintain proprietary protection for our product candidates, technology and know-how, to operate without infringing the proprietary rights of others and to prevent others from infringing our proprietary rights. Our policy is to seek to protect our proprietary position by, among other methods, filing U.S. and foreign patent applications related to our proprietary technology, inventions and improvements that we believe are important to the development of our business. We also rely on trade secrets, know-how and continuing technological innovation to develop and maintain our proprietary position.
As of March 19, 2014, we owned or exclusively licensed (from the NIH and Leiden University) 15 patent families that, collectively, contain approximately 150 issued patents and pending patent applications in various countries around the world relating to our two clinical candidates, CF101 and CF102, and our preclinical candidate, CF602. Patents related to our drug candidates may provide future competitive advantages by providing exclusivity related to the composition of matter, formulation and method of administration of the applicable compounds and could materially improve their value. The patent positions for our leading drug candidates are described below.
We currently license from the NIH and Leiden University certain intellectual property that is necessary to conduct our business. We currently hold an exclusive license from the NIH to a family of patents that protects certain small molecules that are A3AR agonists, such as CF101 and CF102, and the pharmaceutical use of such molecules. This exclusive license relates to two composition of matter patents that were granted in the United States and Europe (in particular, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Belgium and Luxembourg), the former of which is expected to expire in 2015 and the latter in 2014. We will not be able to extend the foregoing expiration dates and as such, as of June 30, 2015, the license agreement with the NIH will terminate. We do not expect that we will be able to submit an NDA seeking approval of CF101 or CF102 prior to the composition of matter patents’ respective expiration dates. However, because CF101 and CF102 each may be a new chemical entity, or NCE, following approval of an NDA, we, if we are the first applicant to obtain NDA approval, may be entitled to five years of data exclusivity in the United States with respect to such NCEs. Analogous data and market exclusivity provisions, of varying duration, may be available in Europe and other foreign jurisdictions. We also have rights under our pharmaceutical use issued patents with respect to CF101 and CF102, which provide patent exclusivity within our field of activity until the mid- to late-2020s. While we believe that we may be able to protect our exclusivity in its field of activity through such use patent portfolio and such period of exclusivity, the lack of composition of matter patent protection may diminish our ability to maintain a proprietary position for its intended uses of CF101 and CF102. Moreover, we cannot be certain that we will be the first applicant to obtain an FDA approval for any indication of CF101 and we cannot be certain that we will be entitled to NCE exclusivity. Such diminution of our proprietary position could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operation and financial condition. We also currently hold an exclusive license from the NIH and Leiden University of the Netherlands to a family of patents and patent applications that relate to the allosteric modulators of the A3AR, which includes the allosteric modulator CF602. This exclusive license relates to two patents that were granted in the United States, China and in Europe (validated in, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Holland and England). These granted patents and the patents that may be granted on patent applications of this patent family are set to expire in 2027. We hold the foregoing licenses pursuant to the terms and conditions of certain license agreements.
With respect to our product candidates, we currently own patents and/or have patent applications pending in several countries around the world for the following families of patents:
|·||a family of patents which pertains to the use of substances that bind to the A3AR, including CF101 and CF102; the pharmaceutical uses to which such family relates include the treatment of proliferative diseases, such as cancer, psoriasis and autoimmune diseases. Such patents were granted in the United States, Europe (by the European Patent Office, or the EPO, and validated in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Holland and the United Kingdom), Australia, Canada, Israel, China, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Poland, Russia and Hong-Kong. These patents are set to expire in 2020, other than the United States patent that will expire in 2022;|
|·||a family of patents and a patent application which pertain to use of substances that bind to the A3AR for the treatment of viral diseases, such as AIDS and hepatitis, and which inhibit viral replication. Such patents were granted in the United States, in Europe (by the EPO and validated in France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland and the United Kingdom), Australia, China, Israel, Japan, Singapore, Canada and Hong Kong. These patents are set to expire in 2022, other than the United States patent that will expire in 2023. This patent application is pending in Brazil with a filing date of January 1, 2002 and a priority date of January 16, 2001;|
|·||a patent which pertains to the use of A3AR agonists for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis, in particular RA. This patent was granted in the United States and is set to expire in 2023;|
|·||a family of patents and patent applications which pertain to a method of identifying inflammation, determining its severity, and determining and monitoring the efficacy of the anti-inflammatory treatment by determining the level of A3AR expression in white blood cells as a biological marker for inflammation. These patents were granted in certain countries in Europe (by the EPO and validated in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland and the United Kingdom), Australia, Israel, Japan and Mexico. These patents are set to expire in 2025. These patent applications are pending in the United States, Canada, China (which was recently approved) and Brazil. Each of the applications has a filing date of November 30, 2005 and a priority date of December 2, 2004;|
|·||a family of patents and patent applications which pertain to the use of A3AR agonists for the treatment of DES. Such patents were granted in the United States, Australia, Canada, China, South Korea and Mexico. These patents are set to expire in 2026. These patent applications are pending in the United States, EPO (this European application designates all member states of the European Patent Convention – EPC), Brazil, Israel and Japan, each with a filing date of February 1, 2006 and a priority date of January 27, 2007;|
|·||a family of patent applications which pertains to the use of A3AR agonists for the treatment of reducing IOP. These patent applications are pending in the United States, in the EPO (this European application designates all EPC member states), Israel, Japan, China, Canada, Australia, Mexico and South Korea, each with a filing date of May 16, 2010 and a priority date of May 17, 2009;|
|·||a family of patent applications which pertains to the use of a specific dose level of CF101 (total daily dose of 4.0 mg) for the treatment of psoriasis. These patent applications are pending in the United States, China, the EPO (this European application designates all EPC member states), India, Japan and South Korea, each with a filing date of September 6, 2010 and a priority date of September 6, 2009;|
|·||a family of patent applications which pertain to the method for producing CF101. These patent applications are pending in the United States, the EPO (this European application designates all EPC member states), India, Israel, Japan and China, each with a filing date of March 13, 2008 and a priority date of March 14, 2007;|
|·||a family of patents and patent applications which pertain to the use of A3AR agonists for the treatment of OA. Such patents were granted in Europe (by the EPO and validated in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Holland and the United Kingdom), Australia, Canada, South Korea, China and Mexico. These patents are set to expire in 2026. Patent applications are pending in the United States, Brazil, Israel, India and Japan. These applications have a filing date of November 29, 2006 and a priority date of November 30, 2005;|
|·||a family of patent applications which pertains to the use of A3AR agonists for increasing liver cell division, intended to induce liver regeneration following injury or surgery. These patent applications are pending in the United States, China (which was recently approved and a patent is to be issued), the EPO (this European application designates all EPC member states), Israel and Japan, each with a filing date of October 22, 2007 and a priority date of October 15, 2007. In addition, we have filed a U.S. provisional patent application which pertains to the use of A3AR agonists for the maintenance of liver function in patients having chronic liver disease. This patent application has a filing date of January 23, 2012 and a priority date of January 23, 2012;|
|·||a family of patents which pertain to the use of A3AR agonists for the treatment of Sjorgen’s syndrome and related diseases. Such patents were granted in the United States, Europe and Japan. These patents are set to expire in 2026;|
|·||a family of patent application under joint ownership with the NIH and licensed, to the extent of our ownership, to Eye-Fite, which pertain to the use of A3AR agonists for the treatment of uveitis. These patent applications are pending in the United States, Canada, China, the EPO (this European application designates all EPC member states), Israel, Japan, Mexico, South Korea and the Russian Federation. The patent applications have filing dates of February 27, 2011 and priority dates of March 3, 2010;|
|·||a patent application which pertains to the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. This patent application is a PCT application with a filing date of January 23, 2013 and a priority date of January 23, 2012;|
|·||a family of two patent applications which pertain to treatment of sexual dysfunction. This family includes two patent applications in Israel that have filing dates of August 8, 2012 and November 12, 2012 and a PCT application which was filed on August 8, 2013.|
We believe that our owned and licensed patents provide broad and comprehensive coverage of our technology, and we intend to aggressively enforce our intellectual property rights if necessary to preserve such rights and to gain the benefit of our investment. However, the patent positions of companies like ours are generally uncertain and involve complex legal and factual questions. Our ability to maintain and solidify our proprietary position for our technology will depend on our success in obtaining effective claims and enforcing those claims once granted. We do not know whether any of our patent applications or those patent applications that we license will result in the issuance of any patents. Our issued patents and those that may issue in the future, or those licensed to us, may be challenged, narrowed, circumvented or found to be invalid or unenforceable, which could limit our ability to stop competitors from marketing related products or the length of term of patent protection that we may have for our products. Neither we nor our licensors can be certain that we were the first to invent the inventions claimed in our owned or licensed patents or patent applications. In addition, our competitors may independently develop similar technologies or duplicate any technology developed by us, and the rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with any meaningful competitive advantages against these competitors. Furthermore, because of the extensive time required for development, testing and regulatory review of a potential product, before any of our products can be commercialized, any related patent may expire or remain in force for only a short period following commercialization, thereby reducing any advantage of the patent.
We may rely, in some circumstances, on trade secrets to protect our technology. However, trade secrets can be difficult to protect. We seek to protect our proprietary technology and processes, in part, by confidentiality agreements and assignment of inventions agreements with our employees, consultants, scientific advisors and contractors. We also seek to preserve the integrity and confidentiality of our data and trade secrets by maintaining physical security of our premises and physical and electronic security of our information technology systems. While we have confidence in these individuals, organizations and systems, such agreements or security measures may be breached, and we may not have adequate remedies for any breach. In addition, our trade secrets may otherwise become known or be independently discovered by competitors or others.
Scientific Advisory Board
We seek advice from our Scientific Advisory Board on scientific and medical matters generally. We call for Scientific Advisory Board meetings on an as-needed basis. The following table sets forth certain information with respect to our Scientific Advisory Board members.
|Nabil Hanna, Ph.D.||Former Chief Science Officer of Biogen-Idec|
|Kamel Khalili, Ph.D.||Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|
Clinical Advisory Board
Our Clinical Advisory Board, which consists of three members, a leading U.S.-based rheumatologist, oncologist and dermatologist, plays an active role in consulting with us with respect to clinical drug development. We call for Clinical Advisory Board meetings on an as-needed basis. The following table sets forth certain information with respect to our Clinical Advisory Board members.
|Dr. Michael Weinblatt||Head, Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women’s Hospital|
|Dr. Keith Stuart||Chairman, Department of Hematology and Oncology; Professor of Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine; Lahey Clinic Medical Center|
|Dr. Jonathan Wilkin||Former Head, Dermatology Division, FDA|
The pharmaceutical industry is characterized by rapidly evolving technology, intense competition and a highly risky, costly and lengthy research and development process. Adequate protection of intellectual property, successful product development, adequate funding and retention of skilled, experienced and professional personnel are among the many factors critical to success in the pharmaceutical industry.
Our technology platform is based on the finding that the A3AR is highly expressed in pathological cells, such as various tumor cell types and inflammatory cells. We believe that targeting the A3AR with synthetic and highly selective A3AR agonists, such as CF101 and CF102, and allosteric modulators, such as CF602, induces anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects. Currently, our drug candidates, CF101, CF102 and CF602 are being developed to treat several autoimmune-inflammatory, oncological and ophthalmic indications, including but not limited to: psoriasis; RA; OA; DES; glaucoma; uveitis; HCC and HCV. Preclinical studies have also indicated that our drug candidates have the potential to treat additional inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn’s disease, oncological diseases and viral disease, such as the JC virus.
Despite the competition, however, we believe that our drug candidates have unique characteristics and advantages over certain drugs currently available on the market and under development to treat these indications. We believe that our pipeline of drug candidates has exhibited a potential for therapeutic success with respect to the treatment of autoimmune-inflammatory, oncological and ophthalmic diseases. We believe that targeting the A3AR with synthetic and highly selective A3AR agonists, such as CF101 and CF102, and allosteric modulators, such as CF602, induces anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects.
We believe the characteristics of CF101, as exhibited in our clinical studies to date, including its good safety profile, clinical activity, simple and less frequent delivery through oral administration and its low cost of production, position it well against the competition in the autoimmune-inflammatory markets, including the psoriasis and RA markets, where treatments, when available, often include injectable drugs, many of which can be highly toxic, expensive and not always effective. Moreover, pre-clinical pharmacology studies in different experimental animal models of arthritis revealed that CF101 acts as a disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug, or a DMARD, which, when coupled with its good safety profile, make it competitive in the psoriasis, RA and OA markets. Our recent findings also demonstrate that a biological predictive marker can be utilized prior to treatment with CF101, which may allow it to be used as a personalized medicine therapeutic approach for the treatment of RA. We believe CF101 is also well-positioned against some of the competition in the ophthalmic markets, where treatments, when available, often include frequent self-administered eye drops, which may be more difficult than taking pills and may result in less than the full dose of the drug actually entering the eye, have undesirable side effects and do not simultaneously treat the underlying cause and relieve the symptoms associated with the indication. Like CF101, CF102 has a good safety profile, is orally administered and has a low cost of production, which we believe positions it well in the HCC market, where only one drug, Nexavar, has been approved by the FDA.
In addition, our human clinical data suggests that A3AR may be a biological marker in that high A3AR expression prior to treatment has been predictive of good patient response to our drug treatment. In fact, as a result of our research we have developed a simple blood assay to test for A3AR expression as a predictive biological marker. We have applied for a patent with respect to the intellectual property related to such assay and are currently utilizing this assay in our ongoing Phase IIb study of CF101 for the treatment of RA.
On the other hand, other drugs on the market, new drugs under development (including drugs that are in more advanced stages of development in comparison to our drug pipeline) and additional drugs that were originally intended for other purposes, but were found effective for purposes targeted by us, may all be competitive to the current drug candidates in our pipeline. In fact, some of these drugs are well established and accepted among patients and physicians in their respective markets, are orally bioavailable, can be efficiently produced and marketed, and are relatively safe. Moreover, other companies of various sizes engage in activities similar to ours. Most, if not all, of our competitors have substantially greater financial and other resources available to them. Competitors include companies with marketed products and/or an advanced research and development pipeline. The major competitors in the arthritis and psoriasis therapeutic field include Abbott Laboratories, Johnson & Johnson, Amgen, Roche, Pfizer, Novartis, Astellas, Eli Lilly and more. The competitive landscape in the ophthalmic therapeutics field includes Novartis/Alcon, Allergan, Pfizer, Roche/Genentech, Merck (which acquired Inspire Pharmaceuticals), Santen (which acquired Novagali), Bausch & Lomb (which acquired ISTA Pharmaceuticals and is currently being acquired by Valeant), GlaxoSmithKline, or GSK, Sanofi-Aventis (which acquired Fovea) and more. Competitors in the HCC field include companies such as Onyx, Bayer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Abbott Laboratories, Eli Lilly, Arqule and more. Competitors in the HCV field include companies such as Merck, Vertex, Roche, Bristol-Myers Squibb (which acquired Inhibitex), Gilead Sciences (which acquired Pharmasset), Achillion, Idenix, Valeant, Human Genome Sciences, Abbott, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Novartis, Pfizer, Idenix, Johnson & Johnson, Presidio, Medivir, Celgene, Enanta, GSK and more.
Moreover, several companies have reported the commencement of research projects related to the A3AR. Such companies include CV Therapeutics Inc. (which was acquired by Gilead), King Pharmaceuticals R&D Inv. (which was acquired by Merck), Hoechst Marion Roussel Inc., Novo Nordisk A/S and Inotek Pharmaceuticals. However, we are not aware if such projects are ongoing or have been completed and, to the best of our knowledge, there is no approved drug currently on the market which is similar to our A3AR agonists, nor are we aware of any allosteric modulator in the A3AR product pipeline similar to our allosteric modulator with respect to chemical profile and mechanism of action.
CF101 for the Treatment of Psoriasis
Psoriasis is an autoimmune hereditary skin disease that, according to the National Psoriasis Foundation, attacks 2% to 3% of the world population. According to Nature Biotechnology, the current market for psoriasis treatment is estimated at about $3.3 billion a year.
The current common treatments for psoriasis include topical and systemic drugs, steroids, immunosuppressive drugs such as Cyclosporine A by Novartis, MTX and biological drugs. Biological drugs, such as Enbrel by Amgen and Pfizer, Amevive by Astellas and Ustakinumab by Centocor, a division of Johnson & Johnson, have significant side effects, are expensive and patients are often not responsive. Many of the current RA drugs on the market or in development are also used for the treatment of psoriasis. See “—CF101 for the Treatment of RA.” In addition, several therapies are in advanced clinical development for psoriasis and many others are in Phase II or earlier stages of development.
CF101 for the Treatment of RA
RA is a severe disease that attacks approximately 0.6% of the U.S. population, mainly women and, in particular, postmenopausal women. According to Visiongain, the world RA market size is predicted to generate revenues of $38.5 billion in 2017.
Many drugs are used to treat RA, including DMARDs. These include MTX, plaquenil, sulfasalazine and leflunomide, all of which are small molecule drugs with mild effectiveness. MTX is the most commonly administered DMARD for RA. It is a generic chemotherapeutic agent marketed by several manufacturers that is administered orally. Due to its relatively toxic nature, however, MTX may result in severe side effects.
The second class of DMARD includes biological drugs, such as Enbrel by Amgen Inc. (which contains the active ingredient Etanercept), Remicade by Centocor, a division of Johnson & Johnson (which contains the active ingredient Infliximab) and Humira by Abbott Laboratories (which contains the active ingredient Adalimumab). These drugs are usually administered in combination with MTX and are more effective in combination, but may have severe side effects, including lymphoma. Biological drugs are administered through injection, are generally expensive and there is no biomarker to predict the response, if any. Steroidal drugs are also used to reduce the general activity of the immune system and for pain relief. In addition, the FDA recently approved Pfizer’s Xeljanz (tofacitinib) small molecule drug, which is the first JAK inhibitor drug, or a drug that inhibits the effect of one or more of the enzymes in the janus kinase family, or a family enzymes that transfer cytokine-mediated signals, to treat RA. Moreover, several therapies, including biological drugs and small molecule drugs, are in advanced clinical development for RA, while others are in Phase II or earlier stages of development.
CF101 for the Treatment of OA
According to Transparency Market Research global osteoporosis market is estimated to be $7.3 billion in 2010 and expected to reach $11.4 billion in 2015. The medications most commonly used to treat OA are symptom-modifying drugs, primarily generics, such as non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs and cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors, or COX-2 inhibitors, which directly target the COX-2 enzyme involved with the etiology and pathogenesis of inflammation and pain. There are no disease-modifying OA drugs, or DMOADs, currently approved for OA and the late stage drug pipeline also lacks DMOADs, except Novartis’ SMC021, which hasn’t met its primary end points in a Phase III study.
Current and future competition includes drugs being developed to relieve pain associated with OA and for the treatment of OA. In addition to DMOADs, therapies in development for OA include stem cell therapy, COX-2 inhibitors, cathepsin S inhibitors, or synthetic inhibitors of the cathepsin S protein, opioid receptor agonists, or pain relievers that bind to certain nervous system receptors, anti-nerve growth factor inhibitors, or inhibitors of proteins that promote nerve growth, transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 antagonists, or a pain reliever that binds to certain proteins responsible for heat and pain sensations, COX inhibiting nitric oxide donors, or drugs that act as COX inhibitors while donating nitric oxide and thereby promoting an anti-inflammatory effect, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, or drugs that block certain enzymes thereby preventing the inactivation of certain intracellular messaging, and calcitonin receptor agonists, or drugs that bind to receptors related to functional activity.
CF101 had a significant anti-inflammatory effect in pre-clinical pharmacology studies for OA and is currently in preparation for a Phase II study.
CF101 for the Treatment of Crohn’s Disease
According to Transparency Market Research, Osteoporosis Market Will Reach USD 6.8 billion in 2015. According to Datamonitor, in 2009, 890,000 persons were estimated to have Crohn’s disease in the seven major markets (the U.S., Japan, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the U.K.) and more than half of such patients were estimated to reside in the United States.
Therapies in development for Crohn’s disease include interleukin inhibitors, a drug that inhibits cell growth, enzyme inhibitors, stem cell therapy, integrin antagonists, or drugs that bind to certain receptors that are responsible for the regulation of cell cycle, shape and motility, tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, or drugs that inhibit the factor that promotes inflammatory responses, and immunomodulators, or drugs that regulate the immune system.
Although CF101 was effective in our pre-clinical and pharmacological studies relating to Crohn’s disease, we currently do not have any planned clinical trials with respect to the use of CF101 for the treatment of Crohn’s disease.
CF101 for the Treatment of DES
According to Datamonitor, DES is the most common problem of patients aged 40 and over who seek eye care. As of 2010, 49.3 million people in the seven major markets (i.e., United States, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom and Japan) suffered from DES. We believe that the number of people who suffer from DES will increase as the population in each of these countries ages. According to GlobalData, as of 2012, the DES market size in the seven major markets was approximately $1.6 billion and is expected to grow to approximately $5.5 billion by 2022.
The current products available to treat DES include Restasis® and Refresh® by Allergan, and Celluvisc®, Hyalein®, Vismed® and Systane® by Alcon. Restasis® is the only FDA-approved prescription therapy indicated to treat DES and, as such, it dominates the U.S. market with respect to the treatment of DES. Restasis® is not registered in Europe. There are several artificial tear products, which are available for purchase over-the-counter, such as Refresh®, available to treat DES, which are used either alone (in mild to moderate cases) or in combination with other treatments (in moderate to severe cases). Eye drops are currently the most common method of treating DES and the most common practice is to have patients self-administer such drops several times daily. Patients may have difficulty complying with this regimen as it may be more difficult than taking pills and may result in less than the full dose of the drug actually entering the eye. In addition to the foregoing, several therapies are in advanced clinical stages of development for DES.
Following the recent announcement that CF101 did not meet the DES Phase III primary and secondary efficacy end-points, we are currently evaluating the results of this study and plan to provide an update on our plans for the DES indication at a later date.
CF101 for the Treatment of Glaucoma
According to Datamonitor, as of 2010, seven million people in the seven major markets suffered from glaucoma. GlobalData estimated that the market for glaucoma drugs was $3.0 billion in 2010 and forecast growth with a compound annual growth rate of 0.6% between 2010 and 2018. We expect that the number of people who suffer from glaucoma will increase as the population in each of the seven major markets ages.
The main drugs used to treat glaucoma include Xalatan®, Travatan® and Cosopt®. Xalatan® is recommended by the European Glaucoma Society and American Academy of Ophthalmologists as the first choice for the treatment of glaucoma. According to a Pfizer annual report, Xalatan®, which is marketed by Pfizer, is the leading drug used to treat glaucoma, and had global sales of over $1.7 billion in 2010. Sales of Xalatan® decreased to $1.25 billion in 2011 and are expected to continue to decrease likely as a result of the expiration of patents covering Xalatan® during 2011 and the launch of new generic brands. Travatan® was first launched in the United States in 2001 and then Europe and the certain other markets in 2002. According to Evaluate Pharma, Travatan®, marketed by Alcon, experienced sales of approximately $600 million in 2010. Travatan® is administered once each day, which ophthalmologists cite as a significant advantage over other drugs used to treat glaucoma. Cosopt® is the oldest combination therapy in the glaucoma market. Due to the expiration of patents covering Cosopt® in 2008, some ophthalmologists have begun to look to other brands or generic drugs in the treatment of glaucoma. Another leading company in this field is Allergan, which markets Lumigan®, Ganfort™, Alphagan®, and Combigan®, with over $1.0 billion in aggregate revenues in 2011. The glaucoma therapeutics market has witnessed major revenues depletion in the recent years due to a string of patent expirations, which started with the expiration of the Xalatan® patent.
Several therapies are in advanced clinical development for glaucoma. In addition, in 2012, the FDA approved tafluprost ophthalmic solution, Zioptan by Merck, the first preservative-free prostaglandin analog ophthalmic solution, or a solution derived from fatty acids, for the treatment of glaucoma.
While several anti-glaucoma drugs exist, the glaucoma therapeutics market has a high level of unmet need, which mainly arises from the lack of approved drugs targeting the disease’s progression. Many therapies approved provide only symptomatic relief. The therapies which are available for the treatment of glaucoma have shown low to moderate efficacy and safety profiles. Accordingly, there is a significant need for drugs that reduce IOP. In addition, part of the pathogenesis of glaucoma is damage to the optic nerve, so drugs that, in addition to lowering IOP, have a neuroprotective effect, would also satisfy an unmet need. Based on its toxicological profile, we believe that CF101 has the potential to have fewer side effects than existing drugs for the treatment of glaucoma. At the same time, CF101 offers the potential to act as a neuroprotective agent that prevents the death of retinal cells, as well as the potential to lower IOP. We also believe that CF101 will offer less frequent administration than most existing therapies.
CF101 for the Treatment of Uveitis
According to Data Monitor, uveitis is estimated as the fifth or sixth leading cause of blindness in the United States. The incidence of uveitis worldwide varies from 14 to 52.4 per 100,000 people, while the overall prevalence around the world is reported as 0.73%. We estimate that there are approximately one million uveitis patients around the world. According to GlobalData, in 2010, the uveitis market was $0.32 billion and is estimated to reach $1.6 billion by 2017. The current treatments for uveitis include corticosteroids, anti-metabolites, T-cell inhibitors, alkylating agents and biological drugs, which often involve serious adverse side effects and lack of efficacy. Accordingly, we believe that a need exists for drugs used in the treatment of uveitis that are less toxic and more effective. There are currently several therapies in advance clinical development for anterior and posterior uveitis.
We believe that a need exists for drugs used for the treatment of uveitis that are less toxic and more effective than currently available therapies. Former pre-clinical pharmacology studies demonstrated that CF101 is effective in inhibiting the development of posterior and anterior uveitis and has a favorable safety profile in experimental animal models. OphthaliX has submitted a protocol for a Phase II study of uveitis and is currently reviewing its clinical development plans and plans to provide an update on the development for this indication on a later stage.
CF102 for the Treatment of HCC
According to the Living with Liver Cancer HCC is the sixth most common form of cancer, the most common form of liver cancer in adults and the third most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, particularly in Asia. According to the American Cancer Society, more than 700,000 people are diagnosed with liver cancer each year throughout the world and more than 600,000 persons die from liver cancer each year. Nexavar is the only approved drug for HCC and prolongs patient survival time by only a few months. GlobalData recently estimated that in 2017, the HCC market will be $1.2 billion. However, Global Industry Analysts predicts that the market for HCC drugs will increase to approximately $2.0 billion by 2015.
Currently, there is no vaccine for HCC. Several therapies are in advanced clinical development for HCC. Some drugs under development act as a single agent and some act in combination with Nexavar. Moreover, some are first line treatments while others are second line treatments. In addition, many existing approaches are used in the treatment of unresectable liver cancer, including alcohol injection, radiofrequency ablation, chemoembolization, cryoablation and radiation therapy.
CF102 for the Treatment of HCV
According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the CDC, approximately 3.2 million people in the United States have chronic HCV, a viral disease that causes inflammation of the liver that can lead to diminished liver function or liver failure. Most people with HCV have no symptoms of the disease until liver damage occurs, which may take several years. Also according to the CDC, approximately 75% to 85% of persons carrying the HCV will develop a chronic disease, such as liver cancer, liver failure or death. According to Renub Research, the market for HCV drugs is experiencing a dramatic near-term growth, by crossing US$ 6 billion in 2011 and is expected to be more than double of its current figure by 2015. Renub Research believes that the robust growth will be driven primarily by the launch of novel premium-priced agents that will increase the size of the drug-treated population, mainly as a result of the re-treatment of prior non-responder patients.
Currently, there is no vaccine for HCV. Prior to the recent approval of Telaprevir and Boceprevir, the available treatment was a combination of interferon injections and ribavarin pills. Less than 50% of patients respond to this therapy and after some time, patients may develop a resistance to the combination. In addition, these drugs may cause severe side effects. Drugs currently approved for the treatment of HCV include interferon-alpha-based products, ribavirin-based products and protease inhibitors.
There are also several companies that specialize in the development of HCV therapies. The HCV therapies currently in development in multiple classes include protease inhibitors, polymerase inhibitors (nucleoside and non-nucleoside), NS5A inhibitors, toll-like receptor inhibitors and cyclophilin inhibitors.
In our studies of CF102, it has shown a good safety profile and a capability to decrease the viral load in HCV patients that also have HCC. We plan to examine the viral load of HCC patients who are also infected with HCV as part of our next HCC Phase II study.
We maintain insurance for our offices and laboratory in Petah-Tikva, Israel. Our insurance program covers approximately $0.375 million of equipment and lease improvements against risk of loss, excluding damage from inventory theft. In addition, we maintain the following insurance: employer liability with coverage of approximately $5.0 million; third party liability with coverage of approximately $0.75 million; fire insurance coverage of approximately $0.725 million; natural disaster coverage of approximately $1.1 million; all risk coverage of approximately $0.02 million for electronic equipment and machinery insurance for laboratory refrigerators; and directors’ and officers’ liability with coverage of $2.0 million per claim and $10.0 million in the aggregate.
We also maintain worldwide product and clinical trial liability insurance with coverage of approximately $3 million with respect to the CF101 and CF102 drugs used in clinical trials. We also procure additional insurance for each specific clinical trial which covers a certain number of trial participants and which varies based on the particular clinical trial. Certain of such policies are based on the Declaration of Helsinki, which is a set of ethical principles regarding human experimentation developed for the medical community by the World Medical Association, and certain protocols of the Israeli Ministry of Health.
We procure cargo marine coverage when we ship substances for our clinical studies. Such insurance is custom-fit to the special requirements of the applicable shipment, such as temperature and/or climate sensitivity. If required, we insure the substances to the extent they are stored in central depots and at clinical sites.
We believe that our insurance policies are adequate and customary for a business of our kind. However, because of the nature of our business, we cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain insurance on a commercially reasonable basis or at all, or that any future claims will not exceed our insurance coverage.
We are subject to various environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those governing air emissions, water and wastewater discharges, noise emissions, the use, management and disposal of hazardous, radioactive and biological materials and wastes and the cleanup of contaminated sites. We believe that our business, operations and facilities are being operated in compliance in all material respects with applicable environmental and health and safety laws and regulations. Our laboratory personnel have ongoing communication with the Israeli Ministry of Environmental Protection in order to verify compliance with relevant instructions and regulations. In addition, all of our laboratory personnel participate in instruction on the proper handling of chemicals, including hazardous substances before commencing employment, and during the course of their employment, with us. In addition, all information with respect to any chemical substance that we use is filed and stored as a Material Safety Data Sheet, as required by applicable environmental regulations. Based on information currently available to us, we do not expect environmental costs and contingencies to have a material adverse effect on us. The operation of our facilities, however, entails risks in these areas. Significant expenditures could be required in the future if we are required to comply with new or more stringent environmental or health and safety laws, regulations or requirements. See “Business — Government Regulation and Funding — Israel Ministry of Environment — Toxin Permit.”
Government Regulation and Funding
We operate in a highly controlled regulatory environment. Stringent regulations establish requirements relating to analytical, toxicological and clinical standards and protocols in respect of the testing of pharmaceuticals. Regulations also cover research, development, manufacturing and reporting procedures, both pre- and post-approval. In many markets, especially in Europe, marketing and pricing strategies are subject to national legislation or administrative practices that include requirements to demonstrate not only the quality, safety and efficacy of a new product, but also its cost-effectiveness relating to other treatment options. Failure to comply with regulations can result in stringent sanctions, including product recalls, withdrawal of approvals, seizure of products and criminal prosecution.
Governmental authorities in all major markets require that a new pharmaceutical product be approved or exempted from approval before it is marketed, and have established high standards for technical appraisal, which can result in an expensive and lengthy approval process. The time to obtain approval varies by country and some products are never approved. The lengthy process of conducting clinical trials, seeking approval and the subsequent compliance with applicable statutes and regulations, if approval is obtained, are very costly and require the expenditure of substantial resources.
A summary of the U.S., EU and Israeli regulatory processes follow below.
In the United States, the Public Health Service Act and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as amended, and the regulations promulgated thereunder, and other federal and state statutes and regulations govern, among other things, the safety and effectiveness standards for our products and the raw materials and components used in the production of, testing, manufacture, labeling, storage, record keeping, approval, advertising and promotion of our products on a product-by-product basis.
Preclinical tests include in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the product candidate, its chemistry, formulation and stability, and animal studies to assess potential safety and efficacy. Certain preclinical tests must be conducted in compliance with good laboratory practice regulations. Violations of these regulations can, in some cases, lead to invalidation of the studies, requiring them to be replicated. After laboratory analysis and preclinical testing, we intend to file an IND with the FDA to begin human testing. Typically, a manufacturer conducts a three-phase human clinical testing program which itself is subject to numerous laws and regulatory requirements, including adequate monitoring, reporting, record keeping and informed consent. In Phase I, small clinical trials are conducted to determine the safety and proper dose ranges of our product candidates. In Phase II, clinical trials are conducted to assess safety and gain preliminary evidence of the efficacy of our product candidates. In Phase III, clinical trials are conducted to provide sufficient data for the statistically valid evidence of safety and efficacy. The time and expense required for us to perform this clinical testing can vary and is substantial. We cannot be certain that we will successfully complete Phase I, Phase II or Phase III testing of our product candidates within any specific time period, if at all. Furthermore, the FDA, the Institutional Review Board responsible for approving and monitoring the clinical trials at a given site, the Data Safety Monitoring Board, where one is used, or we may suspend the clinical trials at any time on various grounds, including a finding that subjects or patients are exposed to unacceptable health risk.
If the clinical data from these clinical trials (Phases I, II and III) are deemed to support the safety and effectiveness of the candidate product for its intended use, then we may proceed to seek to file with the FDA, a New Drug Application, or NDA, seeking approval to market a new drug for one or more specified intended uses. We have not completed our clinical trials for any candidate product for any intended use and therefore, we cannot ascertain whether the clinical data will support and justify filing an NDA. Nevertheless, if and when we are able to ascertain that the clinical data supports and justifies filing an NDA, we intend to make such appropriate filings for all indications for which we are testing our product candidates, including, but not limited to, DES, psoriasis, RA and HCC.
The purpose of the NDA is to provide the FDA with sufficient information so that it can assess whether it ought to approve the candidate product for marketing for specific intended uses. The fact that the FDA has designated a drug as an orphan drug for a particular intended use does not mean that the drug has been approved for marketing. Only after an NDA has been approved by the FDA is marketing appropriate. A request for orphan drug status must be filed before the NDA is filed. The orphan drug designation, though, provides certain benefits, including a seven-year period of market exclusivity subject to certain exceptions. In February 2012, the FDA granted an orphan drug status for the active moiety, or the part of the drug that is responsible for the physiological or pharmacological action of the drug substance, of CF102 for the treatment of HCC. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—CF102”.
The NDA normally contains, among other things, sections describing the chemistry, manufacturing, and controls, non-clinical pharmacology and toxicology, human pharmacokinetics and bioavailability, microbiology, the results of the clinical trials, and the proposed labeling which contains, among other things, the intended uses of the candidate product.
We cannot take any action to market any new drug or biologic product in the United States until our appropriate marketing application has been approved by the FDA. The FDA has substantial discretion over the approval process and may disagree with our interpretation of the data submitted. The process may be significantly extended by requests for additional information or clarification regarding information already provided. As part of this review, the FDA may refer the application to an appropriate advisory committee, typically a panel of clinicians. Satisfaction of these and other regulatory requirements typically takes several years, and the actual time required may vary substantially based upon the type, complexity and novelty of the product. Government regulation may delay or prevent marketing of potential products for a considerable period of time and impose costly procedures on our activities. We cannot be certain that the FDA or other regulatory agencies will approve any of our products on a timely basis, if at all. Success in preclinical or early stage clinical trials does not assure success in later-stage clinical trials. Even if a product receives regulatory approval, the approval may be significantly limited to specific indications or uses and these limitations may adversely affect the commercial viability of the product. Delays in obtaining, or failures to obtain regulatory approvals, would have a material adverse effect on our business.
Even after we obtain FDA approval, we may be required to conduct further clinical trials (i.e., Phase IV trials) and provide additional data on safety and effectiveness. We are also required to gain separate approval for the use of an approved product as a treatment for indications other than those initially approved. In addition, side effects or adverse events that are reported during clinical trials can delay, impede or prevent marketing approval. Similarly, adverse events that are reported after marketing approval can result in additional limitations being placed on the product’s use and, potentially, withdrawal of the product from the market. Any adverse event, either before or after marketing approval, can result in product liability claims against us.
As an alternate path for FDA approval of new indications or new formulations of previously-approved products, a company may file a Section 505(b)(2) NDA, instead of a “stand-alone” or “full” NDA. Section 505(b)(2) of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or FDC, was enacted as part of the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, otherwise known as the Hatch-Waxman Amendments. Section 505(b)(2) permits the submission of an NDA where at least some of the information required for approval comes from studies not conducted by or for the applicant and for which the applicant has not obtained a right of reference. Some examples of products that may be allowed to follow a 505(b)(2) path to approval are drugs that have a new dosage form, strength, route of administration, formulation or indication. The Hatch-Waxman Amendments permit the applicant to rely upon certain published nonclinical or clinical studies conducted for an approved product or the FDA’s conclusions from prior review of such studies. The FDA may require companies to perform additional studies or measurements to support any changes from the approved product. The FDA may then approve the new product for all or some of the labeled indications for which the reference product has been approved, as well as for any new indication supported by the NDA. While references to nonclinical and clinical data not generated by the applicant or for which the applicant does not have a right of reference are allowed, all development, process, stability, qualification and validation data related to the manufacturing and quality of the new product must be included in an NDA submitted under Section 505(b)(2).
To the extent that the Section 505(b)(2) applicant is relying on the FDA’s conclusions regarding studies conducted for an already approved product, the applicant is required to certify to the FDA concerning any patents listed for the approved product in the FDA’s Orange Book publication. Specifically, the applicant must certify that: (i) the required patent information has not been filed; (ii) the listed patent has expired; (iii) the listed patent has not expired, but will expire on a particular date and approval is sought after patent expiration; or (iv) the listed patent is invalid or will not be infringed by the new product. The Section 505(b)(2) application also will not be approved until any non-patent exclusivity, such as exclusivity for obtaining approval of a new chemical entity, listed in the Orange Book for the reference product has expired. Thus, the Section 505(b)(2) applicant may invest a significant amount of time and expense in the development of its products only to be subject to significant delay and patent litigation before its products may be commercialized.
In addition to regulating and auditing human clinical trials, the FDA regulates and inspects equipment, facilities, laboratories and processes used in the manufacturing and testing of such products prior to providing approval to market a product. If after receiving FDA approval, we make a material change in manufacturing equipment, location or process, additional regulatory review may be required. We also must adhere to cGMP regulations and product-specific regulations enforced by the FDA through its facilities inspection program. The FDA also conducts regular, periodic visits to re-inspect our equipment, facilities, laboratories and processes following the initial approval. If, as a result of these inspections, the FDA determines that our equipment, facilities, laboratories or processes do not comply with applicable FDA regulations and conditions of product approval, the FDA may seek civil, criminal or administrative sanctions and/or remedies against us, including the suspension of our manufacturing operations.
We have currently received no approvals to market our products from the FDA or other foreign regulators.
We are also subject to various federal, state and international laws pertaining to health care “fraud and abuse,” including anti-kickback laws and false claims laws. The federal Anti-kickback law, which governs federal healthcare programs (e.g., Medicare, Medicaid), makes it illegal to solicit, offer, receive or pay any remuneration in exchange for, or to induce, the referral of business, including the purchase or prescription of a particular drug. Many states have similar laws that are not restricted to federal healthcare programs. Federal and state false claims laws prohibit anyone from knowingly and willingly presenting, or causing to be presented for payment to third party payers (including Medicare and Medicaid), claims for reimbursement, including claims for the sale of drugs or services, that are false or fraudulent, claims for items or services not provided as claimed, or claims for medically unnecessary items or services. If the government or a whistleblower were to allege that we violated these laws there could be a material adverse effect on us, including our stock price. Even an unsuccessful challenge could cause adverse publicity and be costly to respond to, which could have a materially adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. A finding of liability under these laws can have significant adverse financial implications for us and can result in payment of large penalties and possible exclusion from federal healthcare programs. We will consult counsel concerning the potential application of these and other laws to our business and our sales, marketing and other activities and will make good faith efforts to comply with them. However, given their broad reach and the increasing attention given by law enforcement authorities, we cannot assure you that some of our activities will not be challenged or deemed to violate some of these laws.
European Economic Area
Although we are not currently seeking regulatory approval in the EU, we or our licensees may do so in the future. As such, a summary of the EU regulatory processes follows below.
A medicinal product may only be placed on the market in the European Economic Area, or EEA, composed of the 27 EU member states, plus Norway, Iceland and Lichtenstein, when a marketing authorization has been issued by the competent authority of a member state pursuant to Directive 2001/83/EC (as recently amended by Directive 2004/27/EC), or an authorization has been granted under the centralized procedure in accordance with Regulation (EC) No. 726/2004 or its predecessor, Regulation 2309/93. There are essentially three community procedures created under prevailing European pharmaceutical legislation that, if successfully completed, allow an applicant to place a medicinal product on the market in the EEA.
Regulation 726/2004/EC now governs the centralized procedure when a marketing authorization is granted by the European Commission, acting in its capacity as the European Licensing Authority on the advice of the EMA. That authorization is valid throughout the entire community and directly or (as to Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein) indirectly allows the applicant to place the product on the market in all member states of the EEA. The EMA is the administrative body responsible for coordinating the existing scientific resources available in the member states for evaluation, supervision and pharmacovigilance of medicinal products. Certain medicinal products, as described in the Annex to Regulation 726/2004, must be authorized centrally. These are products that are developed by means of a biotechnological process in accordance with Paragraph 1 to the Annex to the Regulation. Medicinal products for human use containing a new active substance for which the therapeutic indication is the treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or AIDS, cancer, neurodegenerative disorder or diabetes must also be authorized centrally. Starting on May 20, 2008, the mandatory centralized procedure was extended to autoimmune diseases and other immune dysfunctions and viral diseases. Finally, all medicinal products that are designated as orphan medicinal products pursuant to Regulation 141/2000 must be authorized under the centralized procedure. An applicant may also opt for assessment through the centralized procedure if it can show that the medicinal product constitutes a significant therapeutic, scientific or technical innovation or that the granting of authorization centrally is in the interests of patients at the community level. For each application submitted to the EMA for scientific assessment, the EMA is required to ensure that the opinion of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use, or CHMP, is given within 210 days after receipt of a valid application. This 210 days period does not include the time that the applicant to answer any questions raised during the application procedure, the so-called ‘clock stop’ period. If the opinion is positive, the EMA is required to send the opinion to the European Commission, which is responsible for preparing the draft decision granting a marketing authorization. This draft decision may differ from the CHMP opinion, stating reasons for diverging for the CHMP opinion. The draft decision is sent to the applicant and the member states, after which the European Commission takes a final decision. If the initial opinion of the CHMP is negative, the applicant is afforded an opportunity to seek a re-examination of the opinion. The CHMP is required to re-examine its opinion within 60 days following receipt of the request by the applicant. All CHMP refusals and the reasons for refusal are made public on the EMA website. Without a centralized marketing authorization it is prohibited to place a medicinal product that must be authorized centrally on the market in the EU.
Mutual Recognition and Decentralized Procedures
With the exception of products that are authorized centrally, the competent authorities of the member states are responsible for granting marketing authorizations for medicinal products placed on their national markets. If the applicant for a marketing authorization intends to market the same medicinal product in more than one member state, the applicant may seek an authorization progressively in the community under the mutual recognition or decentralized procedure. Mutual recognition is used if the medicinal product has already been authorized in a member state. In this case, the holder of this marketing authorization requests the member state where the authorization has been granted to act as reference member state by preparing an updated assessment report that is then used to facilitate mutual recognition of the existing authorization in the other member states in which approval is sought (the so-called concerned member state(s)). The reference member state must prepare an updated assessment report within 90 days of receipt of a valid application. This report together with the approved Summary of Product Characteristics, or SmPC (which sets out the conditions of use of the product), and a labeling and package leaflet are sent to the concerned member states for their consideration. The concerned member states are required to approve the assessment report, the SmPC and the labeling and package leaflet within 90 days of receipt of these documents. The total procedural time is 180 days.
The decentralized procedure is used in cases where the medicinal product has not received a marketing authorization in the EU at the time of application. The applicant requests a member state of its choice to act as reference member state to prepare an assessment report that is then used to facilitate agreement with the concerned member states and the grant of a national marketing authorization in all of these member states. In this procedure, the reference member state must prepare, for consideration by the concerned member states, the draft assessment report, a draft SmPC and a draft of the labeling and package leaflet within 120 days after receipt of a valid application. As in the case of mutual recognition, the concerned member states are required to approve these documents within 90 days of their receipt.
For both mutual recognition and decentralized procedures, if a concerned member state objects to the grant of a marketing authorization on the grounds of a potential serious risk to public health, it may raise a reasoned objection with the reference member state. The points of disagreement are in the first instance referred to the Co-ordination Group on Mutual Recognition and Decentralized Procedures, or CMD, to reach an agreement within 60 days of the communication of the points of disagreement. If member states fail to reach an agreement, then the matter is referred to the EMA and CHMP for arbitration. The CHMP is required to deliver a reasoned opinion within 60 days of the date on which the matter is referred. The scientific opinion adopted by the CHMP forms the basis for a binding European Commission decision.
Irrespective of whether the medicinal product is assessed centrally, de-centrally or through a process of mutual recognition, the medicinal product must be manufactured in accordance with the principles of good manufacturing practice as set out in Directive 2003/94/EC and Volume 4 of the rules governing medicinal products in the European community. Moreover, community law requires the clinical results in support of clinical safety and efficacy based upon clinical trials conducted in the European community to be in compliance with the requirements of Directive 2001/20/EC, which implements good clinical practice in the conduct of clinical trials on medicinal products for human use. Clinical trials conducted outside the European community and used to support applications for marketing within the EU must have been conducted in a way consistent with the principles set out in Directive 2001/20/EC. The conduct of a clinical trial in the EU requires, pursuant to Directive 2001/20/EC, authorization by the relevant national competent authority where a trial takes place, and an ethics committee to have issued a favorable opinion in relation to the arrangements for the trial. It also requires that the sponsor of the trial, or a person authorized to act on his behalf in relation to the trial, be established in the community.
This procedure is available for medicinal products that do not fall within the scope of mandatory centralized authorization and are intended for use in only one EU member state. Specific procedures and timelines differ between member states, but the duration of the procedure is generally 210 days and based on a risk/efficacy assessment by the competent authority of the member state concerned, followed by determination of SmPC, package leaflet and label text/layout and subsequently grant of the marketing authorization. Marketing authorizations granted on this basis are not mutually recognized by other member states.
There are various types of applications for marketing authorizations:
Full Applications. A full application is one that is made under any of the community procedures described above and “stands alone” in the sense that it contains all of the particulars and information required by Article 8(3) of Directive 2001/83 (as amended) to allow the competent authority to assess the quality, safety and efficacy of the product and in particular the balance between benefit and risk. Article 8(3)(l) in particular refers to the need to present the results of the applicant’s research on (i) pharmaceutical (physical-chemical, biological or microbiological) tests, (ii) preclinical (toxicological and pharmacological) studies and (iii) clinical trials in humans. The nature of these tests, studies and trials is explained in more detail in Annex I to Directive 2001/83/EC. Full applications would be required for products containing new active substances not previously approved by the competent authority, but may also be made for other products.
Abridged Applications. Article 10 of Directive 2001/83/EC contains exemptions from the requirement that the applicant provide the results of its own preclinical and clinical research. There are three regulatory routes for an applicant to seek an exemption from providing such results, namely (i) cross-referral to an innovator’s results without consent of the innovator, (ii) well established use according to published literature and (iii) consent to refer to an existing dossier of research results filed by a previous applicant.
Cross-referral to Innovator’s Data
Articles 10(1) and 10(2)(b) of Directive 2001/83/EC provide the legal basis for an applicant to seek a marketing authorization on the basis that its product is a generic medicinal product (a copy) of a reference medicinal product that has already been authorized, in accordance with community provisions. A reference product is, in principle, an original product granted an authorization on the basis of a full dossier of particulars and information. This is the main exemption used by generic manufacturers for obtaining a marketing authorization for a copy product. The generic applicant is not required to provide the results of preclinical studies and of clinical trials if its product meets the definition of a generic medicinal product and the applicable regulatory results protection period for the results submitted by the innovator has expired. A generic medicinal product is defined as a medicinal product:
|·||having the same qualitative and quantitative composition in active substance as the reference medicinal product;|
|·||having the same pharmaceutical form as the reference medicinal product; and|
|·||whose bioequivalence with the reference medicinal product has been demonstrated by appropriate bioavailability studies.|
Applications in respect of a generic medicinal product cannot be made before the expiry of the protection period. Where the reference product was granted a national marketing authorization pursuant to an application made before October 30, 2005, the protection period is either 6 years or 10 years, depending upon the election of the particular member state concerned. Where the reference product was granted a marketing authorization centrally, pursuant to an application made before November 20, 2005, the protection period is 10 years. For applications made after these dates, Regulation 726/2004 and amendments to Directive 2001/83/EC provide for a harmonized protection period regardless of the approval route utilized. The harmonized protection period is in total 10 years, including eight years of research data protection and two years of marketing protection. The effect is that the originator’s results can be the subject of a cross-referral application after eight years, but any resulting authorization cannot be exploited for a further two years. The rationale of this procedure is not that the competent authority does not have before it relevant tests and trials upon which to assess the efficacy and safety of the generic product, but that the relevant particulars can, if the research data protection period has expired, be found on the originator’s file and used for assessment of the generic medicinal product. The 10-year protection period can be extended to 11 years where, in the first eight years post-authorization, the holder of the authorization obtains approval for a new indication assessed as offering a significant clinical benefit in comparison with existing products.
If the copy product does not meet the definition of a generic medicinal product or if certain types of changes occur in the active substance(s) or in the therapeutic indications, strength, pharmaceutical form or route of administration in relation to the reference medicinal product, Article 10(3) of Directive 2001/83/EC provides that the results of the appropriate preclinical studies or clinical trials must be provided by the applicant.
Well-established Medicinal Use
Under Article 10a of Directive 2001/83/EC, an applicant may, in substitution for the results of its own preclinical and clinical research, present detailed references to published literature demonstrating that the active substance(s) of a product have a well-established medicinal use within the community with recognized efficacy and an acceptable level of safety. The applicant is entitled to refer to a variety of different types of literature, including reports of clinical trials with the same active substance(s) and epidemiological studies that indicate that the constituent or constituents of the product have an acceptable safety/efficacy profile for a particular indication. However, use of the published literature exemption is restricted by stating that in no circumstances will constituents be treated as having a well-established use if they have been used for less than 10 years from the first systematic and documented use of the substance as a medicinal product in the EU. Even after 10 years’ systematic use, the threshold for well-established medicinal use might not be met. European pharmaceutical law requires the competent authorities to consider among other factors the period over which a substance has been used, the amount of patient use of the substance, the degree of scientific interest in the use of the substance (as reflected in the scientific literature) and the coherence (consistency) of all the scientific assessments made in the literature. For this reason, different substances may reach the threshold for well-established use after different periods, but the minimum period is 10 years. If the applicant seeks approval of an entirely new therapeutic use compared with that to which the published literature refers, additional preclinical and/or clinical results would have to be provided.
Under Article 10c of Directive 2001/83/EC, following the grant of a marketing authorization the holder of such authorization may consent to a competent authority utilizing the pharmaceutical, preclinical and clinical documentation that it submitted to obtain approval for a medicinal product to assess a subsequent application relating to a medicinal product possessing the same qualitative and quantitative composition with respect to the active substances and the same pharmaceutical form.
Law Relating to Pediatric Research
Regulation (EC) 1901/2006 (as amended by Regulation (EC) 1902/2006) was adopted on December 12, 2006. This Regulation governs the development of medicinal products for human use in order to meet the specific therapeutic needs of the pediatric population. It requires any application for marketing authorization made after July 26, 2008 in respect of a product not authorized in the European Community on January 26, 2007 (the time the Regulation entered into force), to include the results of all studies performed and details of all information collected in compliance with a pediatric investigation plan agreed by the Pediatric Committee of the EMA, unless the product is subject to an agreed waiver or deferral or unless the product is excluded from the scope of Regulation 1902/2006 (generics, hybrid medicinal products, biosimilars, homeopathic and traditional (herbal) medicinal products and medicinal products containing one or more active substances of well-established medicinal use). Waivers can be granted in certain circumstances where pediatric studies are not required or desirable. Deferrals can be granted in certain circumstances where the initiation or completion of pediatric studies should be deferred until appropriate studies in adults have been performed. Moreover, this regulation imposes the same obligation from January 26, 2009 on an applicant seeking approval of a new indication, pharmaceutical form or route of administration for a product already authorized and still protected by a supplementary protection certificate granted under Regulation EC 469/2009 and its precursor (EEC) 1768/92 or by a patent that qualifies for the granting of such a supplementary protection certificate. The pediatric Regulation 1901/2006 also provides, subject to certain conditions, a reward for performing such pediatric studies, regardless of whether the pediatric results provided resulted in the grant of a pediatric indication. This reward comes in the form of an extension of six months to the supplementary protection certificate granted in respect of the product, unless the product is subject to orphan drug designation, in which case the 10-year market exclusivity period for such orphan products is extended to 12 years. If any of the non-centralized procedures for marketing authorization have been used, the six-month extension of the supplementary protection certificate is only granted if the medicinal product is authorized in all member states.
In the pre-authorization phase the applicant must provide a detailed pharmacovigilance plan that it intends to implement post-authorization. An authorization to market a medicinal product in the EU carries with it an obligation to comply with many post-authorization organizational and behavioral regulations relating to the marketing and other activities of authorization holders. These include requirements relating to post-authorization efficacy studies, post-authorization safety studies, adverse event reporting and other pharmacovigilance requirements, advertising, packaging and labeling, patient package leaflets, distribution and wholesale dealing. The regulations frequently operate within a criminal law framework and failure to comply with the requirements may not only affect the authorization, but also can lead to financial and other sanctions levied on the company in question and responsible officers. As a result of the currently on-going overhaul of EU pharmacovigilance legislation the financial and organizational burden on market authorization holders will increase significantly, such as the obligation to maintain a pharmacovigilance system master file that applies to all holders of marketing authorizations granted in accordance with Directive 2001/83/EC or Regulation (EC) No 726/2004. Marketing authorization holders must furthermore collect data on adverse events associated with use of the authorized product outside the scope of the authorization. Pharmacovigilance for biological products and medicines with a new active substance will be strengthened by subjecting their authorization to additional monitoring activities. The EU is currently in the process of issuing implementing regulations for the new pharmacovigilance framework.
Any authorization granted by member state authorities, which within three years of its granting is not followed by the actual placing on the market of the authorized product in the authorizing member state ceases to be valid. When an authorized product previously placed on the market in the authorizing member state is no longer actually present on the market for a period of three consecutive years, the authorization for that product shall cease to be valid. The same two three year periods apply to authorizations granted by the European Commission based on the centralized procedure.
Israel Ministry of the Environment — Toxin Permit
In accordance with the Israeli Dangerous Substance Law — 1993, the Ministry of the Environment may grant a permit in order to use toxic materials. Because we utilize toxic materials in the course of operation of our laboratories, we were required to apply for a permit to use these materials. Our current toxin permit will remain in effect until January 2017.
Other Licenses and Approvals
We have a business license from the municipality of Petah-Tikva for a drug development research laboratory located at our offices in Petah Tikva, Israel. In order to obtain this license, we also received approval from the Petah-Tikva Association of Towns Fire Department. The business license is valid until December 2014. We also have a radioactive materials or products containing radioactive materials license, which is valid until July 25, 2014.
In 2002, we received approval from the National Council on Animal Experiments, approving us as an institution authorized to conduct experiments on animals.
Clinical Testing in Israel
In order to conduct clinical testing on humans in Israel, special authorization must first be obtained from the ethics committee and general manager of the institution in which the clinical studies are scheduled to be conducted, as required under the Guidelines for Clinical Trials in Human Subjects implemented pursuant to the Israeli Public Health Regulations (Clinical Trials in Human Subjects), as amended from time to time, and other applicable legislation. These regulations also require authorization from the Israeli Ministry of Health, except in certain circumstances, and in the case of genetic trials, special fertility trials and similar trials, an additional authorization of the overseeing institutional ethics committee. The institutional ethics committee must, among other things, evaluate the anticipated benefits that are likely to be derived from the project to determine if it justifies the risks and inconvenience to be inflicted on the human subjects, and the committee must ensure that adequate protection exists for the rights and safety of the participants as well as the accuracy of the information gathered in the course of the clinical testing. Since we intend to perform a portion of the clinical studies on certain of our product candidates in Israel, we will be required to obtain authorization from the ethics committee and general manager of each institution in which we intend to conduct our clinical trials, and in most cases, from the Israeli Ministry of Health.
Israel Ministry of Health
Israel’s Ministry of Health, which regulates medical testing, has adopted protocols that correspond, generally, to those of the FDA and the EMA, making it comparatively straightforward for studies conducted in Israel to satisfy FDA and the European Medicines Agency requirements, thereby enabling medical technologies subjected to clinical trials in Israel to reach U.S. and EU commercial markets in an expedited fashion. Many members of Israel’s medical community have earned international prestige in their chosen fields of expertise and routinely collaborate, teach and lecture at leading medical centers throughout the world. Israel also has free trade agreements with the United States and the European Union.
In addition to regulations in the United States, the EU and Israel, we are subject to a variety of other regulations governing clinical trials and commercial sales and distribution of drugs in other countries. Whether or not our products receive approval from the FDA, approval of such products must be obtained by the comparable regulatory authorities of countries other than the United States before we can commence clinical trials or marketing of the product in those countries. The approval process varies from country to country, and the time may be longer or shorter than that required for FDA approval. The requirements governing the conduct of clinical trials and product licensing vary greatly from country to country.
The requirements that we and our collaborators must satisfy to obtain regulatory approval by government agencies in other countries prior to commercialization of our products in such countries can be rigorous, costly and uncertain. In the European countries, Canada and Australia, regulatory requirements and approval processes are similar in principle to those in the United States. Additionally, depending on the type of drug for which approval is sought, there are currently two potential tracks for marketing approval in the European countries: mutual recognition and the centralized procedure. These review mechanisms may ultimately lead to approval in all European Union countries, but each method grants all participating countries some decision-making authority in product approval. Foreign governments also have stringent post-approval requirements including those relating to manufacture, labeling, reporting, record keeping and marketing. Failure to substantially comply with these on-going requirements could lead to government action against the product, our company and/or our representatives.
Although we are not currently conducting research and development activities in certain Asian countries, including Korea and Japan, certain of our licensees, KD and SKK, are conducting such activities with respect to CF101 in those countries, respectively. Any regulatory approval process that may impact such licensees’ ability to continue their activities or obtain regulatory approval in those countries could impact the revenues we generate from our out-licensing agreements with them.
From time to time, legislation is drafted, introduced and passed in governmental bodies that could significantly change the statutory provisions governing the approval, manufacturing and marketing of products regulated by the FDA, EMA, the Israeli Ministry of Health and other applicable regulatory bodies to which we are subject. In addition, regulations and guidance are often revised or reinterpreted by the national agency in ways that may significantly affect our business and our product candidates. It is impossible to predict whether such legislative changes will be enacted, whether FDA, EMA or Israeli Ministry of Health regulations, guidance or interpretations will change, or what the impact of such changes, if any, may be. We may need to adapt our business and product candidates and products to changes that occur in the future.
C. Organizational Structure
Our corporate structure consists of Can-Fite and three subsidiaries, one of which is an indirect subsidiary: Ultratrend Limited, an English limited company, OphthaliX Inc., a Delaware corporation, or OphthaliX, and Eye-Fite Limited, an Israeli limited company, or Eye-Fite. Ultratrend Limited is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Can-Fite, but has yet to conduct any significant activity. Can-Fite holds 82% of the issued and outstanding capital stock of OphthaliX and accordingly may appoint all members of the board of directors of OphthaliX. Eye-Fite, a wholly-owned subsidiary of OphthaliX, holds an exclusive license from Can-Fite, pursuant to which OphthaliX develops CF101 for use in the ophthalmic field.
D. Property, Plants and Equipment.
We are headquartered in Petah-Tikva, Israel. We lease one floor in one facility pursuant to a lease agreement with Eshkolit Nihul Nadlan LTD, an Israeli limited company, that pursuant to a verbal agreement expires on December 31, 2014. The Petah-Tikva headquarters consists of approximately 300 square meters of space with eight parking spaces. Lease payments are approximately NIS 23,853, or $6,000, per month. If our lease is terminated, we do not foresee significant difficulty in leasing another suitable facility. The current facility houses both our administrative, clinical and research operations. The research laboratory consists of approximately 150 square meters and includes a tissue culture laboratory and a molecular biology laboratory.
ITEM 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments
ITEM 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
The information in this section should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes beginning on page F-1 and the related information included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 20-F. Our financial statements are prepared in accordance with IFRS as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, and reported in NIS. We maintain our accounting books and records in NIS and our functional currency is NIS. Certain amounts presented herein may not sum due to rounding.
We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing orally bioavailable small molecule therapeutic products for the treatment of autoimmune-inflammatory, oncological and ophthalmic diseases. Our platform technology utilizes the Gi protein associated A3AR as a therapeutic target. A3AR is highly expressed in inflammatory and cancer cells, and not significantly expressed in normal cells, suggesting that the receptor could be a unique target for pharmacological intervention. Our pipeline of drug candidates are synthetic, highly specific agonists and allosteric modulators, or ligands or molecules that initiate molecular events when binding with target proteins, targeting the A3AR. Our strategy is to build a fully integrated biotechnology company that discovers, in-licenses and develops an innovative and effective small molecule drug portfolio of ligands that bind to a specific therapeutic target for the treatment of autoimmune-inflammatory, oncological, ophthalmic diseases and more. We continue to develop and test our existing pipeline, while also testing other indications for our existing drug candidates and examining, from time to time, the potential of other small molecules that may fit our platform technology of utilizing small molecules to target the A3AR. We generally focus on drugs with global market potential and we seek to create global partnerships to effectively assist us in developing our portfolio and to market our products.
We have in-licensed three different A3AR ligands which represent our current pipeline of drug candidates under development and include two synthetic A3AR agonists, CF101 (known generically as IB-MECA) and CF102 (known generically as CI-IB-MECA) from NIH, and an allosteric modulator at the A3AR, CF602 from Leiden University. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Business Overview—In-Licensing Agreements”. In addition, we have out-licensed CF101 for (i) the treatment of autoimmune diseases to SKK for the Japanese market, (ii) for the treatment of RA to KD for the Korean market and (iii) for the treatment of ophthalmic diseases to Eye-Fite, a wholly-owned subsidiary of OphthaliX for the global market. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Business Overview—Out-Licensing Agreements”.
Our drug candidates, CF101, CF102 and CF602 are being developed to treat several autoimmune-inflammatory, oncological and ophthalmic indications. CF101 is in various stages of clinical development for the treatment of autoimmune-inflammatory diseases, including RA, psoriasis, and OA. CF101 is also being developed by OphthaliX for the treatment of ophthalmic indications, including DES, glaucoma and uveitis. The CF102 drug candidate is being developed for the treatment of HCC and for the treatment of HCV. CF602 is our second generation allosteric drug candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, which has shown proof of concept in in vitro and in vivo studies. In addition, we recently announced that we are planning to develop CF602 to treat sexual dysfunction. Preclinical studies revealed that our drug candidates have potential to treat additional inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn’s disease, oncological diseases and viral diseases, such as the JC virus.
We are currently: (i) conducting a Phase II/III trial with respect to the development of CF101 for the treatment of psoriasis; (ii) preparing for a Phase III study with respect to the development of CF101 for the treatment of RA; (iii) preparing for a Phase II study with respect to the development of CF101 for the treatment of OA; (iv) preparing for a Phase II study with respect to the development of CF102 for the treatment of HCC (and as part of this study, we will also test CF102 in patients with both HCC and HCV);; and (v) in preclinical work with respect to the development of CF602. OphthaliX is currently: (i) conducting a retrospective analysis of its Phase III DES study data to determine if there is a correlation between the A3AR biomarker and patients’ response to CF101; (ii) conducting a Phase II trial with respect to the development of CF101 for the treatment of glaucoma or related syndromes of ocular hypertension; and (iii) initiating a Phase II study of CF101 for the treatment of uveitis.
Since inception, we have incurred significant losses in connection with our research and development. At December 31, 2013, we had an accumulated deficit of approximately NIS 280,391,000. Although we have begun to recognize revenues in connection with our out-licensing agreements with SKK, KD and OphthaliX, we expect to generate losses in connection with the research and development activities relating to our pipeline of drug candidates. Such research and development activities are budgeted to expand over time and will require further resources if we are to be successful. As a result, we expect to incur operating losses, which may be substantial over the next several years, and we will need to obtain additional funds to further develop or research and development programs.
We have funded our operations primarily through the sale of equity securities (both in private placements and in public offerings on the TASE) and payments received under the licensing arrangements with SKK and KD. We expect to continue to fund our operations over the next several years through our existing cash resources, potential future milestone payments that we expect to receive from our licensees, interest earned on our investments, if any, and additional capital to be raised through public or private equity offerings or debt financings. As of December 31, 2013, we had approximately $5,983,000, or NIS 20,767,000, of cash and cash equivalents based on the exchange rate reported by the Bank of Israel as of December 31, 2013. This does not include an aggregate of approximately $5,059,000 or NIS 17,575,000 raised on March 10, 2014 through a private placement in which we issued ADSs and warrants to purchase ADSs.
Our revenues to date have been generated primarily from payments under our licensing arrangements with SKK and KD. Under the Seikagaku Agreement, we are entitled to up-front and milestone payments of up to $17 million (of which $2 million is attributable to our participation in certain research and development activities), annual payments of $500,000, and up to an additional $4 million in milestone payments if SKK pursues a second indication (the current indication is RA). We will also be entitled to royalties in an amount between 7-12% of annual net sales in Japan subject to certain sales criteria. In accordance with the Seikagaku Agreement, we received an up-front payment of $3.0 million in 2006, a milestone payment of $1.0 million in 2008 and $0.5 million per year from 2007 through 2011 as an annual minimum royalty payment (for an aggregate of $2.5 million). Under the Kwang Dong Agreement, we are entitled to up-front and milestone payments of up to $1.5 million. In accordance with the Kwang Dong Agreement, we received an up-front payment of $0.3 million and a payment of $0.048 million as consideration for KD’s purchase of our ordinary shares in 2009 and a milestone payment of $0.2 million in 2010. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Business Overview—Out-Licensing Agreements”.
Under the terms of the Seikagaku Agreement and the Kwang Dong Agreement, in addition to the payments mentioned above, we are entitled to certain additional payments based on the sale of raw materials, subject to the terms and conditions of the respective agreements. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Business Overview—Out-Licensing Agreements”. Certain payments we have received from SKK and KD have been subject to a 10% and 5% withholding tax in Japan and Korea, respectively, and certain payments we may receive in the future, if at all, may also be subject to the same withholding tax in Japan and Korea. Receipt of any milestone payment under our out-licensing agreements depends on many factors, some of which are beyond our control. We cannot assure you that we will receive any of these future payments. We expect our revenues for the next several years, if any, to be derived primarily from payments under our current out-license agreements and our public capital raising activities, as well as additional collaborations that we may enter into in the future with respect to our drug candidates.
Research and Development
Our research and development expenses consist primarily of salaries and related personnel expenses, fees paid to external service providers, up-front and milestone payments under our license agreements, patent-related legal fees, costs of preclinical studies and clinical trials, drug and laboratory supplies and costs for facilities and equipment. We charge all research and development expenses to operations as they are incurred. We expect our research and development expense to remain our primary expense in the near future as we continue to develop our products. Increases or decreases in research and development expenditures are attributable to the number and/or duration of the pre-clinical and clinical studies that we conduct.
The following table identifies our current major research and development projects:
|Project||Status||Expected or Recent Near Term Milestone|
|CF 101||Preparing for a Phase III study in RA||Completion of preparatory work for Phase III study|
|Ongoing Phase II/III in Psoriasis||Top line results are expected in fourth quarter 2014|
|Ongoing Phase II in Glaucoma (via OphthaliX)||Conclusion of the first segment is expected in the third quarter of 2014|
|Preparing for Phase II in Uveitis (via OphthaliX)||Completion of preparatory work for Phase II study|
|Preparing for a Phase II in OA||Completion of preparatory work for Phase II study|
|CF 102||Phase II in HCC||Initiate patient enrollment in Q2/Q32014|
|CF 602||Pre-Clinical Stage||Continuing pre-clinical studies and preparations|
We record certain costs for each development project on a “direct cost” basis, as they are recorded to the project for which such costs are incurred. Such costs include, but are not limited to, CRO expenses, drug production for pre-clinical and clinical studies and other pre-clinical and clinical expenses. However, certain other costs, including but not limited to, salary expenses (including salaries for research and development personnel), facilities, depreciation, share-based compensation and other overhead costs are recorded on an “indirect cost” basis, i.e., they are shared among all of our projects and are not recorded to the project for which such costs are incurred. We do not allocate direct salaries to projects due to the fact that our project managers are generally involved in several projects at different stages of development, and the related salary expense is not significant to the overall cost of the applicable projects. In addition, indirect labor costs relating to our support of the research and development process, such as manufacturing, controls, pre-clinical analysis, laboratory testing and initial drug sample production, as well as rent and other administrative overhead costs, are shared by many different projects and have never been considered by management to be of significance in its decision-making process with respect to any specific project. Accordingly, such costs have not been specifically allocated to individual projects.
Set forth below is a summary of the gross direct costs allocated to our main projects on an individual basis, as well as the gross direct costs allocated to our less significant projects on an aggregate basis, for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013; and on an aggregate basis since project inception:
|($ in thousands)||Costs|
|Year Ended December 31,||Project|
|Total gross direct project costs (1)||1,367||2,002||2,892||19,796|
|(1)||Does not include indirect project costs and overhead, such as payroll and related expenses (including stock-based compensation), facilities, depreciation and impairment of intellectual property, which are included in total research and development expenses in our financial statements.|
Under our licensing agreement with Eye-Fite, Eye-Fite is responsible for making payments to our licensor, the NIH, for certain patent rights relating to CF101. See “Item 10. Additional Information — Material Contracts — Out-Licensing Agreements—Eye-Fite Agreement”.
From our inception through December 31, 2013, we have incurred research and development expenses of approximately $53 million. We expect that a large percentage of our research and development expense in the future will be incurred in support of our current and future preclinical and clinical development projects. Due to the inherently unpredictable nature of preclinical and clinical development processes and given the early stage of our preclinical product development projects, we are unable to estimate with any certainty the costs we will incur in the continued development of the product candidates in our pipeline for potential commercialization. Clinical development timelines, the probability of success and development costs can differ materially from expectations. We expect to continue to test our product candidates in preclinical studies for toxicology, safety and efficacy, and to conduct additional clinical trials for each product candidate. If we are not able to enter into an out-licensing arrangement with respect to any product candidate prior to the commencement of later stage clinical trials, we may fund the trials for the product candidates ourselves.
While we are currently focused on advancing each of our product development projects, our future research and development expenses will depend on the clinical success of each product candidate, as well as ongoing assessments of each product candidate’s commercial potential. In addition, we cannot forecast with any degree of certainty which product candidates may be subject to future out-licensing arrangements, when such out-licensing arrangements will be secured, if at all, and to what degree such arrangements would affect our development plans and capital requirements.
As we obtain results from clinical trials, we may elect to discontinue or delay clinical trials for certain product candidates or projects in order to focus our resources on more promising product candidates or projects. Completion of clinical trials by us or our licensees may take several years or more, but the length of time generally varies according to the type, complexity, novelty and intended use of a product candidate.
The cost of clinical trials may vary significantly over the life of a project as a result of differences arising during clinical development, including, among others:
|·||the number of sites included in the clinical trials;|
|·||the length of time required to enroll suitable patients;|
|·||the number of patients that participate in the clinical trials;|
|·||the duration of patient follow-up;|
|·||the development stage of the product candidate; and|
|·||the efficacy and safety profile of the product candidate.|
We expect our research and development expenses to increase in the future from current levels as we continue the advancement of our clinical trials and preclinical product development and to the extent we in-license new product candidates. The lengthy process of completing clinical trials and seeking regulatory approval for our product candidates requires expenditure of substantial resources. Any failure or delay in completing clinical trials, or in obtaining regulatory approvals, could cause a delay in generating product revenue and cause our research and development expenses to increase and, in turn, have a material adverse effect on our operations. Because of the factors set forth above, we are not able to estimate with any certainty when we would recognize any net cash inflows from our projects.
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of compensation for employees in executive and operational functions, including accounting, finance, legal, business development, investor relations, information technology and human resources. Other significant general and administration costs include facilities costs, professional fees for outside accounting and legal services, travel costs, insurance premiums and depreciation.
Financial Expense and Income
Financial expense and income consists of interest earned on our cash and cash equivalents; bank fees and other transactional costs; expense or income resulting from fluctuations of the U.S. dollar and other currencies, in which a portion of our assets and liabilities are denominated, against the NIS (our functional currency); and fluctuations in the market value of our warrants which trade on the TASE.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our accounting policies and their effect on our financial condition and results of operations are more fully described in our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report. The preparation of financial statements in conformity with International Financial Reporting Standards, or IFRS, as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, or IASB, requires management to make estimates and assumptions that in certain circumstances affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, revenues and expenses and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. These estimates are prepared using our best judgment, after considering past and current events and economic conditions. While management believes the factors evaluated provide a meaningful basis for establishing and applying sound accounting policies, management cannot guarantee that the estimates will always be consistent with actual results. In addition, certain information relied upon by us in preparing such estimates includes internally generated financial and operating information, external market information, when available, and when necessary, information obtained from consultations with third party experts. Actual results could differ from these estimates and could have a material adverse effect on our reported results.
We believe that the accounting policies discussed below are critical to our financial results and to the understanding of our past and future performance, as these policies relate to the more significant areas involving management’s estimates and assumptions. We consider an accounting estimate to be critical if: (1) it requires us to make assumptions because information was not available at the time or it included matters that were highly uncertain at the time we were making our estimate; and (2) changes in the estimate could have a material impact on our financial condition or results of operations.
The presentation currency of our financial statements and our functional currency is the NIS. When the functional currency of an entity in which we own an equity interest, which is referred to as a subsidiary, differs from our functional currency, that subsidiary represents a foreign operation whose financial statements are translated as follows: (i) assets and liabilities are translated at the closing rate at the date of that balance sheet, (ii) income and expenses are translated at average exchange rates for the presented periods and (iii) share capital and capital reserves are translated at the exchange rate prevailing at the date of incurrence. All resulting translation differences are recognized in a separate component in equity, as other comprehensive loss, “adjustments from translation of financial statements.”
For the convenience of the reader, the reported NIS amounts as of December 31, 2013 have been translated into U.S. dollars at the representative rate of exchange on December 31, 2013 (U.S. $1 = NIS 3.471). The U.S. dollar amounts presented should not be construed as representing amounts that are receivable or payable in U.S. dollars or convertible into U.S. dollars, unless otherwise indicated. The U.S. dollar amounts were rounded to whole numbers of convenience.
Principles of Consolidation
Our financial statements reflect the consolidation of the financial statements of companies that we control based on legal control or effective control. We fully consolidate into our financial statements the results of operations of companies that we control. Legal control exists when we have the power, directly or indirectly, to govern the financial and operating policies of an entity. The effect of potential voting rights that are exercisable at the balance sheet date are considered when assessing whether we have legal control. In addition, we consolidate on the basis of effective control even if we do not have voting control. The determination that effective control exists involves significant judgment.
In evaluating the effective control on our investees we consider the following criteria to determine if effective control exists:
|·||whether we hold a significant voting interest (but less than half the voting rights);|
|·||whether there is a wide diversity of public holdings of the remaining shares conferring voting rights;|
|·||whether in the past we had the majority of the voting power participating in the general meetings of shareholders and, therefore, have in fact had the right to nominate the majority of the board members;|
|·||the absence of a single entity that holds a significant portion of the investee’s shares;|
|·||our ability to establish policies and guide operations by appointing the remainder of the investee’s senior management; and|
|·||whether the minority shareholders have participation rights or other preferential rights, excluding traditional shareholder protective rights.|
Entities we control are fully consolidated in our financial statements. All significant intercompany balances and transactions are eliminated in consolidation. Non-controlling interests of subsidiaries represent the non-controlling shareholders’ proportionate interest in the comprehensive income (loss) of the subsidiaries and fair value of the net assets or the net identifiable assets upon the acquisition of the subsidiaries.
We recognize revenues in accordance with International Accounting Standard No. 18, or IAS 18. Under IAS 18 we generate income from licensing agreements with pharmaceutical companies. These agreements usually comprise license fees, annual license fees, milestone payments and potential royalty payments.
Revenues are recognized in profit or loss when the revenues can be measured reliably, it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to us and the costs incurred or to be incurred in respect of the transaction can be reliably measured.
Arrangements with multiple elements:
Revenues from sale agreements that do not contain a general right of return and that are composed of multiple elements such as licenses and services are allocated to the various accounting units and recognized for each accounting unit separately. An element constitutes a separate accounting unit if and only if it has a separate value to the customer. Revenue from the various accounting units is recognized when the criteria for revenue recognition regarding the elements of that accounting unit have been met according to their type and only to the extent of the consideration that is not contingent upon completion or performance of the remaining elements in the contract.
Revenues from license fees:
As for revenues from preliminary license fees and annual license fees, we examine whether the license can be separated from our other performance obligations.
Revenues from milestone payments:
Revenues which are contingent on compliance with and attainment of milestones are recognized in profit or loss at the achievement of a milestone, provided that certain criteria have been met.
Revenues from royalties:
Revenues from royalties are recognized as they accrue in accordance with the terms of the relevant agreement.
We account for share-based compensation arrangements in accordance with the provisions of IFRS 2. IFRS 2 requires companies to recognize share-based compensation expense for awards of equity instruments based on the grant-date fair value of those awards. The cost is recognized as compensation expense over the vesting period, based upon the grant-date fair value of the equity or liability instruments issued. We selected the binomial option pricing model as the most appropriate method for determining the estimated fair value of our share-based awards without market conditions. The determination of the grant date fair value of options using an option pricing model is affected by estimates and assumptions regarding a number of complex and subjective variables. These variables include the expected volatility of our share price over the expected term of the options, share option exercise and forfeiture rate, risk-free interest rates, expected dividends and the price of our ordinary shares on the TASE. As our ordinary shares are publicly traded on the TASE, we do not need to estimate the fair value of our ordinary shares. Rather, we use the actual closing market price of our ordinary shares on the date of grant, as reported by the TASE although in the future we may use the closing market price of our ADSs on the date of grant, as reported by the NYSE MKT.
If any of the assumptions used in the binomial option pricing model change significantly, share-based compensation for future awards may differ materially compared with the awards previously granted.
As for other service providers, the cost of the transactions is measured at the fair value of the goods or services received as consideration for equity instruments. In cases where the fair value of the goods or services received as consideration of equity instruments cannot be measured, they are measured by reference to the fair value of the equity instruments granted.
The cost of equity-settled transactions is recognized in profit or loss, together with a corresponding increase in equity, during the period which the service are to be satisfied, ending on the date on which the relevant employees or other service providers become fully entitled to the award.
If we modify the conditions on which equity-instruments are granted, an additional expense is recognized for any modification that increases the total fair value of the share-based payment arrangement or is otherwise beneficial to the employee or other service provider at the modification date.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
Amendments to IAS 32, Financial Instruments: Presentation regarding Offsetting Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities
The International Accounting Standards Board, or IASB, issued amendments to IAS 32 regarding the offsetting of financial assets and financial liabilities. The amendments to IAS 32 clarify, among other things, the meaning of "currently has a legally enforceable right of set-off. Among other things, the amendments to IAS 32 prescribe that the right of set-off must be legally enforceable not only during the ordinary course of business of the parties to the contract but also in the event of bankruptcy or insolvency of one of the parties. The amendments to IAS 32 also state that in order for the right of set-off to be currently available, it must not be contingent on a future event, there may not be periods during which the right is not available, or there may not be any events that will cause the right to expire. The amendments to IAS 32 are to be applied retrospectively with respect to he financial statements for annual periods beginning on January 1, 2014 or thereafter. We believe that the amendments to IAS 32 will not have a material impact on our financial statements.
IFRS 9—Financial Instruments
The IASB issued IFRS 9, Financial Instruments, the first part of Phase 1 of a project to replace IAS 39, Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement. IFRS 9 focuses mainly on the classification and measurement of financial assets and it applies to all financial assets within the scope of IAS 39.
According to IFRS 9, all financial assets (including hybrid contracts with financial asset hosts) should be measured at fair value upon initial recognition. In subsequent periods, debt instruments should be measured at amortized cost only if both of the following conditions are met:
|·||the asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets in order to collect the contractual cash flows;|
|·||the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding;|
Notwithstanding the aforesaid, upon initial recognition, we may designate a debt instrument that meets both of the abovementioned conditions as measured at fair value through profit or loss if this designation eliminates or significantly reduces a measurement or recognition inconsistency, or accounting mismatch, that would have otherwise arisen.
Subsequent measurement of all other debt instruments and financial assets should be at fair value. When an entity changes its business model for managing financial assets, it shall reclassify all affected financial assets. In all other circumstances, reclassification of financial instruments is not permitted.
Financial assets that are equity instruments should be measured in subsequent periods at fair value and the changes recognized in profit or loss or in other comprehensive income (loss), in accordance with the election by us on an instrument-by-instrument basis (amounts recognized in other comprehensive income cannot be subsequently reclassified to profit or loss). If equity instruments are held for trading, they should be measured at fair value through profit or loss.
The IASB did not set a mandatory effective date for IFRS 9. Early application is permitted. Upon initial application, IFRS 9 should be applied retrospectively by providing the required disclosure or restating comparative figures, except as specified in IFRS 9.
Amendments regarding derecognition and financial liabilities (Phase 2) were published. According to those amendments, the provisions of IAS 39 will continue to apply to derecognition and to financial liabilities for which the fair value option has not been elected (designated as measured at fair value through profit or loss); that is, the classification and measurement provisions of IAS 39 will continue to apply to financial liabilities held for trading and financial liabilities measured at amortized cost.
Pursuant to the amendments, the amount of the adjustment to the liability's fair value that is attributable to changes in credit risk should be presented in other comprehensive income. All other fair value adjustments should be presented in profit or loss. If presenting the fair value adjustment of the liability arising from changes in credit risk in other comprehensive income creates an accounting mismatch in profit or loss, then that adjustment should also be presented in profit or loss rather than in other comprehensive income.
The IASB did not set a mandatory effective date for IFRS 9. Early application is permitted provided that we also adopt the provisions of IFRS 9 regarding the classification and measurement of financial assets (the first part of Phase 1). Upon initial application, the amendments are to be applied retrospectively by providing the required disclosure or restating comparative figures, except as specified in the amendments.
In November 2013, the IASB issued Phase 3 of IFRS 9 as part of the complete version of IFRS 9. Phase 3 of IFRS 9 includes the new hedge accounting requirements and related amendments to IFRS 9, IFRS 7 and IAS 39.
Below are the significant principles of hedge accounting under IFRS 9 (2013):
|·||Hedge accounting can be applied to the risk components of financial hedged items and non-financial hedged items provided that risk component is separately identifiable and can be reliably measured;|
|·||The hedge effectiveness test is to be made only on a qualitative basis and the quantitative effectiveness test of the 80%-125% range is eliminated. The test focuses on achieving the hedge objectives and the economic relationship between the hedged item and the hedging instrument and the effect of credit risk on that relationship;|
|·||Adjustments of interaction between hedging instrument and hedged item can be made also after inception of the hedge if changes in hedging are required as part of risk management objective. In such case, no re-designation of the hedge is required; and|
|·||The time value of an option, the forward element of a forward and foreign currency basis spread can be excluded from the designation of a financial instrument as the hedging instrument and accounted for as costs of hedging transaction. This means that, instead of affecting profit or loss like a trading instrument (speculative) these amounts are carried as transaction costs in other comprehensive income and amortized to profit or loss over the hedge period.|
The IASB did not set a mandatory effective date for Phase 3 of IFRS 9. Entities may apply Phase 3 of IFRS 9 early provided that they also adopt the other provisions of IFRS 9. As part of the amendments included in Phase 3 of IFRS 9, the provisions of Phase 2 regarding measurement of liabilities at fair value and presenting fair value changes in own credit risk in other comprehensive income can be applied before applying any other requirements in IFRS 9.
We believe that IFRS 9 (including all its phases) will not have a material impact on the financial statements.
Amendments to IAS 36, Impairment of Asset
In May 2013, the IASB issued amendments to IAS 36, Impairment of Assets regarding the disclosure requirements of fair value less costs of disposal. The amendments include additional disclosure requirements of the recoverable amount and fair value. The additional disclosures include the fair value hierarchy, the valuation techniques and changes therein, the discount rates and the principal assumptions underlying the valuations. The amendments are effective for annual periods beginning on January 1, 2014 or thereafter. The appropriate disclosures will be included in our financial statements upon the first-time adoption of the amendments.
IFRIC 21, Levies
In May 2013, the IASB issued IFRIC 21, Levies regarding levies imposed by governments through legislation. According to IFRIC 21, the liability to pay a levy will only be recognized when the activity that triggers payment occurs. IFRIC 21 is effective for annual periods beginning on January 1, 2014 or thereafter. Earlier application is permitted. We believe that IFRIC 21 will not have a material impact on our financial statements.
Amendment to IAS 19 regarding the accounting for contributions linked to service
The IASB issued an amendment to the existing requirements of IAS 19 regarding contributions made by employees or third parties that are linked to service. According to the amendment, if the amount of the contributions is independent of the number of years of service (such as in cases where contributions are computed as a fixed percentage of employee's salary, the contributions are in fixed amount over the service period, the contributions are determined by the employee's age), contributions may be recognized as a reduction in the service cost in the period in which the related service is rendered instead of attributing them to periods of service. If contributions depend on the number of years during which service is rendered, these contributions should be attributed to periods of service by applying the same method of attribution in accordance with IAS 19.70 regarding attribution of benefit to periods of service. The amendments to IAS 19 are to be applied retrospectively with respect to the financial statements for annual periods beginning on January 1, 2014 or thereafter. We believe that IAS 19 will not have a material impact on our financial statements.
Israeli Public Offering
On February 5, 2013, we completed the sale in Israel of 7,477 units, each consisting of 10,000 of our ordinary shares, 5,000 Series 10 Warrants to purchase ordinary shares and 5,000 Series 11 Warrants to purchase ordinary shares, for an aggregate of 74,770,000 ordinary shares, 37,385,000 Series 10 Warrants to purchase ordinary shares and 37,385,000 Series 11 Warrants to purchase ordinary shares. The purchase price in the offering was NIS 3,544 per unit ($960.17 based on the exchange rate of New Israel Shekels to U.S. Dollars of NIS 3.691to $1.00), for an aggregate purchase price for all units of NIS 26,498,488 ($7,179,216 using the same exchange rate). After the payment of sales commissions, we received net proceeds from the offering of approximately NIS 23,926,000 ($6,482,254).
On October 23, 2013, we completed the sale in Israel of 3,675 units, each consisting of 500 of our ordinary shares and 375 Series 12 Warrants to purchase ordinary shares, for an aggregate of 1,837,500 ordinary shares and 1,378,125 Series 12 Warrants to purchase ordinary shares. The purchase price in the offering was NIS 5,800 per unit ($1,648.52 based on the exchange rate of New Israel Shekels to U.S. Dollars of NIS 3.52 to $1.00), for an aggregate purchase price for all units of NIS 21,315,000 ($6,055,398 using the same exchange rate). After the payment of sales commissions, we received net proceeds from the offering of approximately NIS 20,138,000 ($5,721,000).
US Private Placement
On March 10, 2014, we sold to institutional and accredited investors 982,344 ADSs, at a purchase price of $5.15 per ADS, and warrants to purchase 491,172 additional ADSs in a private placement. The warrants may be exercised at any time after September 10, 2014 for a period of four years from the date of issuance and have an exercise price of $6.43 per ADS, subject to adjustment as set forth therein. The warrants may be exercised on a cashless basis if after September 10, 2014 there is no effective registration statement registering the ADSs underlying the warrants. In connection with the private placement we issued to the placement agent, 49,117 ADSs exercisable at $6.43 per ADS for four years. The placement agent warrants may be exercised on a cashless basis at any time after September 10, 2014.
In connection with the sale of ADSs and warrants to purchase ADSs, we entered into a registration rights agreement with the investors pursuant to which we agreed to prepare and file a registration statement with the SEC registering the resale of the ADSs issued to the investors together with the ADSs underlying warrants issued to the investors and the placement agent on or prior to 30 days following the closing date and to use our reasonable best efforts to cause the registration statement to be declared effective within 60 days following the closing date (or 90 days in the event of a full review by the SEC). The registration rghts agreement provides for the payment of monthly registration delay payments of 1% of the purchase price paid by the investors up to an aggregate of 9% upon the occurrence of certain events outlined in the registration rights agreement, including, our failure to timely file the registration statement, have the registration statement timely declared effective as required by the registration rights agreement or maintain the effectiveness of the registration statement subject to certain allowable grace periods. In addition, our officers and directors entered into lock-up agreements pursuant to which they may not, among other things, offer or sell ADSs or ADS equivalents until 30 days after the effectiveness of the registration statement, subject to certain exceptions and for a period of 60 days following closing, we may not offer or sell any of our securities, subject to certain exceptions.
Public Warrant Offerings
Series 6 and 7 Warrants
In connection with our Israeli public offering on November 16, 2011, we issued Series 6 and Series 7 Warrants, which were publicly traded on the TASE and exercisable into our publicly traded ordinary shares. In accordance with IFRS, we allocated a portion of the consideration received for such warrants based on their market value at that time. The consideration allocated to such warrants is generally reflected in non-current liabilities due to the fact that the exercise price of the warrants is linked to the Israeli consumer price index.
In the public offering, we issued 4,953,750 Series 6 Warrants exercisable for 198,150 of our ordinary shares. The Series 6 Warrants have an exercise price of 0.63 NIS per ordinary share (which may fluctuate as it is based on the Israeli consumer price index) and were originally scheduled to expire on May 16, 2012. On August 18, 2012, we filed an application with the Petah-Tikva District Court in Israel to approve an extension of the Series 6 Warrants until September 1, 2014 and following a meeting of our shareholders and holders of Series 6 Warrant to approve the extension of the exercise period of the Series 6 Warrants, on January 27, 2014, the District Court approved the extension until October 30, 2013. The Series 6 Warrants expired on October 30, 2013.
In the same offering, we issued 9,907,500 Series 7 Warrants exercisable for 396,300 of our ordinary shares. The Series 7 Warrants have an exercise price of 0.80 NIS per ordinary share (which may fluctuate as it is based on the Israeli consumer price index) and were originally scheduled to expire on November 16, 2013. On November 7, 2013, we filed an application with the Petah-Tikva District Court in Israel to approve an extension of the Series 7 Warrants until March 31, 2014 and following a meeting of our shareholders and holders of Series 7 Warrant to approve the extension of the exercise period of the Series 7 Warrants, on January 27, 2014, the District Court approved the extension until March 31, 2014.
Series 8 and 9 Warrants
In connection with our Israeli public offering on May 1, 2012, we issued Series 8 and Series 9 Warrants, which are publicly traded on the TASE and exercisable into our publicly traded ordinary shares. In accordance with IFRS, we allocated a portion of the consideration received for such warrants based on their market value at the time. The consideration allocated to warrants is generally reflected in non-current liabilities due to the fact that the exercise price of such warrants is linked to the Israeli consumer price index.
We issued 8,112,000 Series 8 Warrants exercisable for 324,480 of our ordinary shares in the offering. Although the Series 8 Warrants had an exercise price of 0.55 NIS per ordinary share (which may fluctuate as it is based on the Israeli consumer price index) and were set to expire on June 30, 2013. On June 24, 2013, the Lod District Court in Israel approved a settlement, approved at a meeting of the shareholders and the Series 8 Warrants holders, according to which the exercise price was increased to 0.75 NIS per ordinary share (which may fluctuate as it is based on the Israeli consumer price index) and the exercise period was extended until December 31, 2013. The Series 8 Warrants expired on December 31, 2013.
We also issued 12,168,000 Series 9 Warrants exercisable for 486,720 of our ordinary shares in this offering. In accordance with IFRS, we allocated a portion of the consideration received from the Series 9 Warrants based on their market value at the time. The consideration allocated to the Series 9 Warrants is generally reflected in shareholders’ equity due to the fact that the exercise price of such warrants is fixed. The Series 9 Warrants have a fixed exercise price of 0.85 NIS per ordinary share and are set to expire on May 1, 2015.
Series 10 and 11 Warrants
In connection with our Israeli public offering on February 5, 2013, we issued Series 10 and Series 11 Warrants, which are publicly traded on the TASE and exercisable into our publicly traded ordinary shares. In accordance with IFRS, we allocated a portion of the consideration received for such warrants based on their market value at the time. The consideration allocated to warrants is generally reflected in non-current liabilities due to the fact that the exercise price of such warrants is linked to the Israeli consumer price index.
We issued 39,067,000 Series 10 Warrants exercisable for 1,562,680 of our ordinary shares in the offering. The Series 10 Warrants have an exercise price of 0.394 NIS per ordinary share (which may fluctuate as it is based on the Israeli consumer price index) and are set to expire on October 31, 2015.
We also issued 37,385,000 Series 11 Warrants exercisable for 1,495,400 of our ordinary shares in the offering. The Series 10 Warrants have an exercise price of 0.392 NIS per ordinary share (which may fluctuate as it is based on the Israeli consumer price index) and are set to expire on April 30, 2016.
Our Board of Directors decided that the exercise price of the Series 10 and Series 11 Warrants will no longer be linked to the Israeli consumer price index and on August 20, 2013, the Lod District Court approved a settlement, approved at a meeting of the shareholders and the Series 10 and 11Warrants holders, according to which the exercise price of the Series 10 and 11 Warrants will no longer be linked to the Israeli consumer price index. As a result, Series 10 and 11 Warrants, were reclassified to equity.
As of March 26, 2014, other than Series 6 and Series 8 Warrants that have been expired, 25,000 Series 10 Warrants exercised on December 26, 2013 to purchase 1,000 ordinary shares for an aggregate exercise price of NIS 9,850 and 12,500 Series 11 Warrants exercised on December 26, 2013 to purchase 500 ordinary shares for an aggregate exercise price of NIS 4,900 none of the foregoing warrants have been exercised.
Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012
We are an emerging growth company within the meaning of the rules under the Securities Act, and we will utilize certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to public companies that are not emerging growth companies. The JOBS Act permits us, as an “emerging growth company,” to take advantage of an extended transition period to comply with certain new or revised accounting standards if such standards apply to companies that are not issuers. We are choosing to “opt out” of this provision and, as a result, we will comply with new or revised accounting standards when they are required to be adopted by issuers. This decision to opt out of the extended transition period under the JOBS Act is irrevocable.
A. Results of Operations
We have set forth below a summary of our revenues generated by region for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013.
|Year ended December 31, |
(in thousands NIS)
For additional information with respect to our revenues, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—Business Overview—Out-Licensing Agreements” and “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Revenues.”
Cost of revenues
Cost of revenues consists of royalty payments due to the licensors under our in-licensing agreements with the NIH and Leiden University. We did not record any cost of revenues during the year ended December 31, 2013 and 2012.
Comparison of the Year Ended December 31, 2013 to Year Ended December 31, 2012
Research and development expenses
Research and development expenses for the year ended December 31, 2013 were NIS 15.39 million, an increase of NIS 2.23 million, or 14.5%, compared to NIS 13.16 million for the year ended December 31, 2012. The increase in research and development expenses was primarily due to the increase in clinical trial expenses.
General and administrative expenses
General and administrative expenses were NIS 15.92 million for the year ended December 31, 2013 and NIS 9.27 million for year ended December 31, 2012. This increase was is primarily due to an increase in investor relations expenses, share based payments, salaries and professional services.
Financial income, net
We recognized net financial income of NIS 0.509 million for year ended December 31, 2013, and NIS 0.514 million for the year ended December 31, 2012. The decrease in the financial income, net is not material.
Comparison of the Year Ended December 31, 2012 to Year Ended December 31, 2011
Research and development expenses
Research and development expenses for the year ended December 31, 2012 were NIS 13.16 million, an increase of NIS 0.19 million, or 1.5%, compared to NIS 12.97 million for the year ended December 31, 2011. We believe that the increase in research and development expenses is not material.
General and administrative expenses
General and administrative expenses were NIS 9.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2012 and NIS 6.9 million for year ended December 31, 2011. The increase in 2012 as compared to 2011 was primarily from the activities of OphthaliX. This increase was mainly from professional services (consisting of an increase of NIS 1.2 million), directors’ fees (consisting of NIS 0.8 million in stock-based compensation awarded to an OphthaliX director) and insurance (consisting of the purchase of a directors’ and officers’ insurance policy in 2012 for NIS 0.2 million). We expect that we will continue to experience increases in expenses through 2013 and beyond.
Financial income, net
We recognized net financial income of NIS 0.514 million for year ended December 31, 2012, a decrease of NIS 0.93 million, or 65%, compared to net financial income of NIS 1.44 million for the year ended December 31, 2011. The decrease in net financial income resulted primarily from the net change in fair value of financial liabilities. In both 2012 and 2011 we had a decrease in the market value of the various series of our traded warrants which was recorded as financial income. The decrease in 2011 was greater than it was in 2012 (i.e., NIS 1.5 million in 2011 compared to NIS 0.4 million in 2012) and therefore the net financial income in that year was also greater.
B. Liquidity and Capital Resources
Since inception, we have funded our operations primarily through public (in Israel) and private offerings of our equity securities and payments received under our strategic licensing arrangements. At December 31, 2013, we had approximately $5,983,000 in cash and cash equivalents, and have invested most of our available cash funds in short-term bank deposits. As of March 26, 2014, we raised approximately NIS 92 million, after deduction of offering expenses, as a private company until the consummation of the IPO and approximately NIS 184 million, after deduction of offering expenses, as a public company since the completion of the IPO. During 2013, we raised NIS 26,498,488 from our Israeli public offering of ordinary shares, Series 10 and Series 11 Warrants in February, 2013 and a further NIS 21,315,000 from our private offering of ordinary shares and Series 12 Warrants in October of 2013. On March 10, 2014, we sold to accredited investors ADSs, and warrants to purchase additional ADSs resulting in net proceeds of approximately NIS 16 million.
We may be able to use U.S. taxes withheld as credits against Israeli corporate income tax when we have income, if at all, but there can be no assurance that we will be able to realize the credits. In addition, we believe that we may be entitled to a refund of such withholding tax from the U.S. government but there can be no assurance that we will be entitled to such a refund. For information regarding the revenues and expenses associated with our licensing agreements, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—Business Overview—Out-Licensing Agreements”, “Item 4. Information on the Company—Business Overview—In-Licensing Agreements” and “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Revenues.”
Net cash used in operating activities was NIS 30.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2013, compared with net cash used in operating activities of NIS 16.2 million and NIS 20.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively. The NIS 13.9 million increase in the net cash used in operating activities during 2013, compared to 2012, was primarily the result of an increase in the loss of the company and also the result of decrease in trade payables and other payable and an increase in accounts receivable, which decreased in the year before. The NIS 4.7 million decrease in the net cash used in operating activities during 2012, compared to 2011, was primarily the result of a decrease in accounts receivable, which had increased the year before.
Net cash used in investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2013 was NIS 0.04 compared to net cash provided by investing activities of NIS 0.07 million for the year ended December 31, 2012 and NIS 0.08 for the year ended December 31, 2011. The changes in cash flows from investing activities are immaterial.
Net cash provided by financing activities was NIS 46 million for the year ended December 31, 2013, compared to net cash provided by financing activities of NIS 5.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2012 and NIS 17.67 million for the year ended December 31, 2011. The NIS 40.4 million increase in the net cash provided by financing activities during 2013, compared to 2012, was primarily due to our capital raising transactions in February and October 2013. The NIS 12.07 million decrease in the net cash provided by financing activities during 2012, compared to 2011, was primarily due to sale of shares to non-controlling interest shareholders in 2011.
Developing drugs, conducting clinical trials and commercializing products is expensive and we will need to raise substantial additional funds to achieve our strategic objectives. Although we believe our existing financial resources as of March 26, 2014, will be sufficient to fund our projected cash requirements through for the next twelve months, we will require significant additional financing to fund our operations. Additional financing may not be available on acceptable terms, if at all. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including:
|·||the progress and costs of our preclinical studies, clinical trials and other research and development activities;|
|·||the scope, prioritization and number of our clinical trials and other research and development programs;|
|·||the amount of revenues we receive under our licensing arrangements;|
|·||the costs of the development and expansion of our operational infrastructure;|
|·||the costs and timing of obtaining regulatory approval of our platform and products;|
|·||the ability of us or our collaborators to achieve development milestones, marketing approval and other events or developments under our licensing agreements;|
|·||the costs of filing, prosecuting, enforcing and defending patent claims and other intellectual property rights;|
|·||the costs and timing of securing manufacturing arrangements for clinical or commercial production;|
|·||the costs of contracting with third parties to provide sales and marketing capabilities for us;|
|·||the costs of acquiring or undertaking development and commercialization efforts for any future products or platforms;|
|·||the magnitude of our general and administrative expenses;|
|·||any cost that we may incur under current and future licensing arrangements relating to our platform and products; and|
|·||payments to the OCS.|
Until we can generate significant continuing revenues, we expect to satisfy our future cash needs through payments received under our license agreements, debt or equity financings, or by out-licensing other product candidates. We cannot be certain that additional funding will be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. If funds are not available, we may be required to delay, reduce the scope of, or eliminate one or more of our research or development programs or our commercialization efforts.
C. Research and Development, Patents and Licenses, Etc.
For information concerning our research and development policies and a description of the amount spent during each of the last three fiscal years on company-sponsored research and development activities, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Operating Results.”
D. Trend Information.
We are a development stage company and it is not possible for us to predict with any degree of accuracy the outcome of our research, development or commercialization efforts. As such, it is not possible for us to predict with any degree of accuracy any significant trends, uncertainties, demands, commitments or events that are reasonably likely to have a material effect on our net sales or revenues, income from continuing operations, profitability, liquidity or capital resources, or that would cause financial information to not necessarily be indicative of future operating results or financial condition. However, to the extent possible, certain trends, uncertainties, demands, commitments and events are identified in the preceding subsections of this Item 5.
E. Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements.
We have no off-balance sheet arrangements that have had or are reasonably likely to have a current or future effect on our financial condition, changes in financial condition, revenues or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources that are material to investors.
F. Contractual Obligations.
The following table summarizes our significant contractual obligations in NIS at December 31, 2013:
|1 – 3 |
|Leiden University milestones(2)||430,371||47,819||382,552||-||-|
|Car lease obligations||283,000||147,000||136,000||-||-|
|(1)||Includes a $50,000 annual royalty and $425,000 in milestone payments, assuming the initiation of new clinical trials. Does not include a potential milestone payment of $500,000 upon approval by the FDA or any regulatory authority as the NIH Agreement will terminate in 2015 upon the expiration of the last patent licensed thereunder, which will be prior to achieving such milestone.|
|(2)||Includes a €10,000 annual royalty and €50,000 upon the initiation of a Phase I study. We will update our milestone payment obligations upon releasing the Phase I data from such study. As such, the obligations above do not include a potential milestone payment of €100,000 upon the initiation of a Phase II study, €200,000 upon the initiation of a Phase III study or €500,000 upon marketing approval by any regulatory authority.|
ITEM 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees
A. Directors and Senior Management.
The following table sets forth the members of our senior management and Board of Directors (1):
|Ilan Cohn, Ph.D.||Chairman of the Board||58|
|Pnina Fishman, Ph.D.||Chief Executive Officer, Director||65|
|Motti Farbstein||Chief Operating and Financial Officer||50|
|Barak Singer||Vice President, Business Development||42|
|Abraham Sartani, M.D.||Director||67|
|Yechezkel Barenholz, Ph.D.||Director, Audit Committee and Compensation Committee member||72|
|Gil Oren||Director, Audit Committee and Compensation Committee member||61|
|(1)||Avigdor Kaplan, our former Chairman of the Board, was not re-elected to the Board of Directors at the annual shareholders meeting held on May 2, 2013. On May 30, 2013, Ilan Cohn was appointed as the new Chairman of the Board.|
Ilan Cohn, Ph.D. Ilan Cohn, Ph.D. is a patent attorney and senior partner at the patent attorney firm Reinhold Cohn and Partners, where he has been an attorney since 1986. Dr. Cohn co-founded Can-Fite, served as its Chief Executive Officer until September 2004, served on our Board of Directors since 1994 and since May 30, 2013 serves as the Chairman of the Can-Fite Board of Directors. Dr. Cohn has also been a director of OphthaliX since November 21, 2011. Dr. Cohn holds a Ph.D. in biology and is a patent attorney with many years of experience in the biopharmaceutical field. He has served on the board of directors of a number of life science companies, including Discovery Laboratories Inc. (formerly Ansan Pharmaceuticals), a U.S. public company. Dr. Cohn has also been involved in the past in management of venture capital funds focused on investments in the life sciences industry. Dr. Cohn served a number of years as a co-chairman of the Biotech Committee of the US-Israeli Science and Technology Commission. Dr. Cohen is also currently a member of the board of directors of I.C.R.C Management Ltd, Famillion BVI Ltd. and Famillion Ltd. (a subsidiary of Famillion BVI Ltd.). Dr. Cohn holds a Ph.D. in Biology from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Pnina Fishman, Ph.D. Pnina Fishman, Ph.D. co-founded Can-Fite and has served as our Chief Executive Officer and served on our Board of Directors since September 2005. She has also served as the Chief Executive Officer of OphthaliX from November 21, 2011 through December 31, 2012. Dr. Fishman is the scientific founder of Can-Fite and was previously a professor of Life Sciences and headed the Laboratory of Clinical and Tumor Immunology at the Felsenstein Medical Research Institute, Rabin Medical Center, Israel. Dr. Fishman has authored or co-authored over 150 publications and presented the findings of her research at many major scientific meetings. Her past managerial experience included seven years as Chief Executive Officer of Mor Research Application, the technology transfer arm of Clalit Health Services, the largest healthcare provider in Israel. Mor Research Application was also the first clinical research organization in Israel. Dr. Fishman currently also serves as a member of the board of directors of F.D Consulting Ltd., Ultratrend Ltd., EyeFite Ltd. and OphthaliX Inc. Dr. Fishman holds a Ph.D. in Immunology from the Bar Ilan University in Ramat Gan, Israel.
Motti Farbstein. Motti Farbstein has been with Can-Fite since 2003. Mr. Farbstein served as our Chief Operating Officer from August 2003 until May 2005 and from that date onwards he served as Chief Operating and Financial Officer. Mr. Farbstein also serves as a director of EyeFite Ltd. since July 2011. Mr. Farbstein’s past managerial experience includes seven years as Vice President of Mor Research Application, a company that managed the commercialization of the intellectual property of all hospitals and research centers affiliated with Clalit Health Services, which is the largest healthcare provider in Israel and was Israel’s first clinical CRO. Mr. Farbstein also has extensive experience in the data management of clinical trials.
Barak Singer. Barak Singer has more than ten years of experience in investment banking, venture capital and business development. Mr. Singer has been our Vice President of Business Development since March 2011 and since February 28, 2013, Mr. Singer has also served as the Chief Executive Officer of OphthaliX. Prior to joining us, from August 2009, until March 2011, Mr. Singer was Vice President of Business Development at Xenia Venture Capital, or Xenia. Before joining Xenia and from 2001 to 2009, Mr. Singer was Managing Director and Co-Head of Investment Banking at Tamir Fishman & Co, the Israeli strategic affiliate of RBC Capital Markets. Mr. Singer focused on capital raising and mergers and acquisitions, and led Tamir Fishman investment banking activities in the life science field. Before joining Tamir Fishman, Mr. Singer was a paralegal at S. Horowitz & Co, a leading Israeli commercial law firm.. Mr. Singer holds a B.A. and an LL.B. from the IDC in Herzeliya, Israel.
Guy Regev. Guy Regev has over twelve years of experience in accounting, financial management and control and general management of commercial enterprises. He has served on our Board of Directors since July 2011 and has served as a member of our Audit Committee and Compensation Committee since February 2014. Mr. Regev has also been a director of OphthaliX since November 2011. Mr. Regev is currently the Chief Executive Officer of Gaon Holdings Ltd, a publicly traded Israeli holding company traded on the TASE which focuses on three areas of operation - Cleantech / Water, Financial Services, Retail/Trading. Mr. Regev is currently also the Chief Executive Officer of Middle East Tube Company Ltd a publicly traded Israeli company traded on the TASE which focuses on steel pipe manufacturing and galvanization services. Mr. Regev is also the Chief Executive Officer of Shaked Global Group Ltd, a privately-held equity investment firm that provides value added capital to environmental-related companies and technologies, or Shaked. Mr. Regev joined Shaked at the beginning of 2008 and will retire from this position in April 2014. Mr. Regev has also been a director of OphthaliX since November 2011. Prior to joining Shaked, from 2001 to 2008, Mr. Regev was Vice President of Commercial Business at Housing & Construction Holding, or HCH, Israel’s largest infrastructure company. His duties included being responsible for the consolidation and financial recovery of various business units within HCH. Prior to that, Mr. Regev carried several roles within the group including as a Chief Financial Officer and later the Chief Executive Officer of Blue-Green Ltd., the environmental services subsidiary of HCH. Between 1999 and 2001, Mr. Regev was a manager at Deloitte & Touche, Israel. Mr. Regev holds an LLB degree in Law (Israel) and is a licensed attorney and has been a licensed CPA since 1999. Mr. Regev is also a director of, The Green Way Ltd, Shtang Construction and Engineering Ltd, R.I.B.E. Consulting & Investment Ltd., Shaked Group Ltd, Aqua Investments Ltd, Middle East Tube Company Ltd, Middle East Tube - Industries 2001 Ltd, Middle East Tubes - Galvanizing (1994) Ltd, I-Solar Greentech Ltd, Plassim Infrastructure Ltd, Plassim Advanced Solutions in Sanitation Ltd, Hakohav Valves Industries Metal (1987) Ltd, Aqua Flowing Infrastructure Control Systems Ltd, Metzerplas Agriculture Cooperative Ltd, B. Gaon Retail & Trading Ltd, Gaon Agro - Rimon Management Services Ltd, B. Gaon Business (2004) Ltd, Gaon Antan Investments Ltd, Or Asaf Investments Ltd, Hamashbir Holdings (1999) Ltd, G.A.L Water Technologies Ltd, I.M.G. Retail Israel Ltd and AHAVA Holdings LTD.
Abraham Sartani, M.D. Abraham Sartani has served on our Board of Directors since 2001. Dr. Sartani has over 30 years of experience in the pharmaceuticals industry and currently acts as a consultant to pharmaceutical and medical device companies. Dr. Sartani is a member of a number of scientific and management societies and the author or co-author of numerous publications and patents in the urology, pain treatment and hypertension fields. Dr. Sartani also currently serves on the board of directors of Akkadeas Pharma Srl and is a co-founding partner. From 1985 until 2008, Dr. Sartani was the Vice-President of R&D and Licensing of Recordati, a European specialty pharmaceutical company. Prior to joining Recordati, from 1980 until 1985, Dr. Sartani was employed at Farmitalia-Carlo Erba, serving in a number of capacities, including as the Medical Director for Europe.
Yechezkel (Chezi) Barenholz, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus Barenholz has served as an external director on our Board of Directors since December 2005 and is a member of our Audit Committee and Compensation Committee since December 2005. Since 1978, Professor Barenholz, the Daniel G. Miller Professor in Cancer Research, has been the head of the Liposome and Membrane Research Lab on the faculty of Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Israel, where has also been a professor since 1981. From 1973 to 2005, Professor Barenholz was a visiting professor in the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Virginia School of Medicine in Charlottesville, Virginia. Professor Barenholz was also a visiting professor at the following universities: the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands (1992); the University of Kyoto in Japan (1998); La Sapeinza University in Rome, Italy (2006); Jaiotung University in Shanghai, China (2006); Kings College, University of London in the UK (2006); and the Danish Technical University in Copenhagen, Denmark (2010). His current research focuses on the development of drugs based on drug delivery systems. In particular, Professor Barenholz assisted in the development of DOXILTM, the first FDA approved and globally-used anticancer nano-drug and liposomal. Professor Barenholz is also an author of more than 360 scientific publications, with an aggregate of more than 10,000 citations, and is a co-inventor of more than 30 approved patent families. He was an executive editor of Progress in Lipid Research, an editor of four special issues of the same publication and is on the editorial board of six other scientific journals. Professor Barenholz is a co-founder of NasVax LTD, Mobeius Medical LTD and Lipocure LTD, all of which are in the advanced stages of clinical development of liposomal drugs based on his inventions and knowhow. Professor Barenholz was awarded: the Donder’s Chair and the Kaye award (both in 1995 and 1997); the Alec D. Bangham award (1998); the Teva Founders Prize (2001); an honorary doctorate degree from the Technical University of Denmark (2012); and the international Controlled Release Society’s Founders Award (2012). In 2003, Professor Barenholz founded the Barenholz Prize to encourage excellence and innovation among Ph.D. students in Israel in the field of applied sciences. Professor Barenholz currently serves on the board of directors of Lipocure LTD and Moebius Medical LTD.
Gil Oren. Gil Oren has served as external director on our Board of Directors since July 2008 and chairs both the Audit Committee and Compensation Committee since July 2008. Mr. Oren is the founder of a private consulting firm he started in 2008. Mr. Oren has over 25 years of experience in top managerial positions in various public companies in Israel and the United States and currently serves on the board of directors of Pointer Telocation Ltd. (NASDAQ: PNTR). From 1976 to 1992, Mr. Oren served in various positions within the Tadiran Group, including serving for five years as the Chief Financial Officer of Tadiran Electronic’s U.S. subsidiary. After serving in such capacity, Mr. Oren returned to Israel and joined Cargal, first as Vice President of Finance and then as Chief Executive Officer and General Manager. From 2002 to 2007, Mr. Oren joined SFK, a leading Israeli investment group, and served in various capacities in its portfolio companies, including as the deputy chief executive office of Urdan Industries, the chief executive officer of Itong Industries and the chairman of the board of directors of Orlite Industries. Mr. Oren has also served, on behalf of SFK, on the board of directors of various other public and private companies, including Nirlat, Aloni and Scope. Mr. Oren holds a B.A in accounting and economics from Tel Aviv University and a M.B.A from Tel Aviv University. Mr. Oren is also Certified Public Accountant.
The following table sets forth the annual compensation (excluding option grants) of members of our senior management and Board of Directors for the year ended December 31, 2013.
|Annual Compensation (excluding option grants)|
|Name||Salary and related benefits||Bonus|
|Avigdor Kaplan (1)||60,000||(5)||-|
|Liora Lev (2)||-||-|
|(1)||Avigdor Kaplan, our former Chairman of the Board, was not re-elected to the Board of Directors at the annual shareholders meeting held on May 2, 2013. On May 30, 2013, Ilan Cohn was appointed as the new Chairman of the Board.|
|(2)||Liora Lev resigned as director on January 30, 2014|
|(3)||Referenced amount represents NIS 1,050,000 in management fees and NIS 71,000 reimbursement of expenses.|
|(4)||Referenced amount represents salary.|
|(5)||Referenced amount represents director fees.|
The following table sets forth information with respect to the options granted to the members of our senior management and Board of Directors for the year ended December 31, 2013.
|Number of Options||Vesting
2013 (in NIS)
|Motti Farbstein||March 21, 2013||0.326||100,000||(1)||1/16 per quarter||March 20, 2023||17,000||8,647|
|Barak Singer||March 21, 2013||0.326||100,000||(1)||1/16 per quarter||March 20, 2023||17,000||8,647|
(1) Exercisable for 4,000 of our ordinary shares.
Employment and Consulting Agreements
We have or have had written employment and non-competition agreements with each of Barak Singer, our Vice President of Business Development, Motti Farbstein, our Chief Operating and Financial Officer, and written consulting agreements with each of Reinhold Cohn and Partners, an Israeli partnership, through which Ilan Cohn, Ph.D., our Chairman of the Board of Directors, is a partner, Abraham Sartani, one of our directors, and BioStrategies Consulting Ltd., a U.S. company, or BioStrategics, through its President Michael Silverman, our Medical Director. We have also entered into a service management agreement with F.D. Consulting International and Marketing Ltd., an Israeli limited company, or F.D. Consulting, which is partially owned by Pnina Fishman, Ph.D., our Chief Executive Officer and director, and master services agreement with Accellient Partners LLC, a Massachusetts limited liability company, or Accellient Partners, through its Chief Executive Officer William Kerns, our Vice President of Drug Development. As of March 26, 2014, the foregoing agreements were still in full force and effect, with the exception of the consulting agreement with Reinhold Cohn and Partners, which expired by its terms in September 2011 and was not subsequently extended, the consulting agreement with Abraham Sartani, which we terminated in July 2011, and the consulting agreement with Avigdor Kaplan, which was terminated in May 2013.
All of these agreements contain customary provisions regarding noncompetition, confidentiality of information and assignment of proprietary information and inventions. However, the enforceability of the noncompetition provisions may be limited under applicable law. The compensation payable under the foregoing agreements consists of share-based awards and/or an hourly rate for services rendered, reimbursement of certain expenses, and in the case of the employment and non-competition agreements, contributions to study funds.
The following are summary descriptions of each of the foregoing agreements which are still in force to which we are a party. The descriptions provided below do not purport to be complete and are qualified in their entirety by the complete agreements, which are attached as exhibits to this Annual Report on Form 20-F.
Employment and Non-Competition Agreement with Motti Farbstein: On September 1, 2003 we entered into an employment and non-competition agreement with Motti Farbstein pursuant to which Mr. Farbstein began serving as our Director of Clinical Operations and Administrative Affairs on September 1, 2003 and is currently serving as our Chief Operating and Financial Officer. Mr. Farbstein’s current gross monthly salary is NIS 49,450. Mr. Farbstein is entitled to an allocation to a manager’s insurance policy equivalent to an amount up to 13-1/3% of his gross monthly salary, up to 2-1/2% of his gross monthly salary for disability insurance and 7-1/2% of his gross monthly salary for a study fund. The foregoing amounts are paid by us. Five percent of his gross monthly salary is deducted for the manager’s insurance policy and 2-1/2% is deducted for the study fund. Mr. Farbstein is also entitled to reimbursement for reasonable out-of-pocket expenses, including travel expenses, and use of a company automobile and mobile phone.
Mr. Farbstein is also entitled to receive options exercisable into our ordinary shares from time to time. As of March 26 2014, we have granted him options to purchase 44,196 ordinary shares.
The term of Mr. Farbstein’s employment and non-competition agreement is indefinite, unless earlier terminated for just cause by either party, upon the death, disability or retirement age, or without cause by either party, subject to 60 days’ advanced notice.
Employment and Non-Competition Agreement with Barak Singer: On February 22, 2011 we entered into an employment and non-competition agreement which was subsequently amended on February 28, 2013. Barak Singer began serving as our Vice President of Business Development on March 20, 2011 and was appointed Chief Executive Officer of Ophthalix on February 28, 2013. Mr. Singer’s current gross monthly salary is NIS 45,000 (50% of this amount is consideration for services provided to our company and 50% is for services provided to OphthaliX). Mr. Singer is entitled to a success performance bonus of one time his monthly salary upon the achievement of certain milestones. In addition, he was issued options to purchase 104,412 shares of OphthaliX’s common stock of vesting over three years on a quarterly basis and exercisable at $5.29 per share options as well as options purchase 104,412 shares of OphthaliX’s common stock exercisable at $5.29 and vesting on the achievement of certain milestones. Mr. Singer is entitled to an allocation to a manager’s insurance policy equivalent to an amount up to 13-1/3% of his gross monthly salary, up to 2-1/2% of his gross monthly salary for disability insurance and 7-1/2% of his gross monthly salary for a study fund. The foregoing amounts are paid by us. Five percent of his gross monthly salary is deducted for the manager’s insurance policy and 2-1/2% is deducted for the study fund. Mr. Singer is also entitled to reimbursement for reasonable out-of-pocket expenses and use of a company automobile and mobile phone.
Mr. Singer is also entitled to receive options exercisable into our ordinary shares from time to time. As of March 26, 2014, we have granted him options to purchase 17,200 ordinary shares.
The term of Mr. Singer’s employment is indefinite, unless earlier terminated for just cause by either party, upon the death, disability or retirement age, or without cause by either party, subject to 60 days’ advanced notice.
Consulting Agreement with BioStrategics: On September 27, 2005, we entered into a consulting agreement with BioStrategics through its President, Michael Silverman pursuant to which Dr. Silverman began serving as our Medical Director. Dr. Silverman has extensive experience in clinical development acquired through his involvement in clinical development in large pharmaceutical and small biopharmaceutical companies. He was involved in international clinical research, market-oriented strategic planning, and the challenges of managing research and development portfolios in various capacities at Sterling Winthrop Research Institute and subsequently at Sandoz Research Institute.
BioStrategics’ current fee is $325 per hour with a maximum daily fee of $2,600. In addition, BioStrategics is entitled to reimbursement for reasonable pre-approved expenses. The term of the consulting agreement is currently on a year-to-year basis, unless earlier terminated by either party upon 30 days’ prior written notice or immediately by either party if such termination is for cause.
Service Management Agreement with F.D. Consulting: On June 27, 2002, we entered into a Service Management Agreement with F.D. Consulting, a company partially owned by Pnina Fishman, pursuant to which Dr. Fishman began serving as our Chief Scientific Officer and later became our Chief Executive Officer and is a member of our Board of Directors and continues to be retained through this agreement. F.D. Consulting’s current gross monthly fee is NIS 75,000, which is linked to the Israeli CPI and fluctuates accordingly. Dr. Fishman, through F.D. Consulting, is also entitled to reimbursement for reasonable out-of-pocket expenses and use of a company automobile and mobile phone.
Dr. Fishman is also entitled to receive options exercisable into our ordinary shares from time to time. As of March 26, 2014, we have granted her options to purchase 302,830 ordinary shares.
The term of F.D. Consulting’s service management agreement is indefinite, unless earlier terminated for cause by us or without cause by either party, subject to three months’ advanced notice.
Master Services Agreement with Accellient Partners: On May 10, 2010, we entered into a Master Services Agreement with Accellient Partners, a company owned by William Kerns, who currently serves as our current Vice President of Drug Development. Dr. Kerns has over 20 years of experience in Pharmaceutical Research and Development at SmithKline Beecham and Eisai Pharmaceuticals. As a Senior Executive he has participated in the development of drugs for over 100 Phase I studies and 13 NDA’s and/or Marketing Authorization Applications. Dr. Kerns has chaired a FDA committee on biomarkers and he is an expert in preclinical development and regulatory strategy.
According to the agreement, consulting services are provided by Accellient Partners’ personnel in accordance with individual work orders that are executed from time to time. Each individual work order defines the scope of work to be provided and sets forth the fees to be paid to Accellient Partners.
Beginning on May 10, 2012, the term of the master services agreement is on a month-to-month basis, unless terminated by us upon 30 days’ prior written notice, by us at any time if Accellient Partners commits a breach and fails to cure, or by Accellient Partners upon 30 days’ prior written notice if we commit a breach and fail to cure.
C. Board Practices
According to the Israeli Companies Law, the management of our business is vested in our Board of Directors. Our Board of Directors may exercise all powers and may take all actions that are not specifically granted to our shareholders. Our executive officers are responsible for our day-to-day management and have individual responsibilities established by our Board of Directors. Executive officers are appointed by and serve at the discretion of our Board of Directors, subject to any applicable employment agreements we have entered into with the executive officers. See “Item 6—Directors, Senior Management and Employees—Compensation—Employment and Consulting Agreements.”
Election of Directors and Terms of Office
Our Board of Directors currently consists of six members. Other than our two external directors, our directors are elected by an ordinary resolution at the annual general meeting of our shareholders. The nomination of our directors is proposed by the Board of Directors. Our board has the authority to add additional directors up to the maximum number of 12 directors allowed under our Articles. Such directors appointed by the board serve until the next annual general meeting of the shareholders. Unless they resign before the end of their term or are removed in accordance with our Articles of Association, all of our directors, other than our external directors, will serve as directors until our next annual general meeting of shareholders. On May 2, 2013, at an annual general meeting of our shareholders, Pnina Fishman, Ilan Cohn, Liora Lev, Avi Sartani and Guy Regev were re-elected to serve as directors of our company. Yechezkel Barenholz was re-elected to serve as our external director at the December 19, 2011 extraordinary general meeting. Gil Oren was re-elected to serve as our external director at the July 3, 2011 extraordinary general meeting. Yechezkel Barenholz and Gil Oren are serving as external directors pursuant to the provisions of the Israeli Companies Law, for a three-year term ending in December 25, 2014 and July 9, 2014, respectively. After these dates, Gil Oren’s term as external director may be renewed for one additional three-year term. Yechezkel Barenholz may not be re-elected to serve as an external director as he was elected for three terms, the maximum term according to the provisions of the Israeli Companies Law. On May 30, 2013, Ilan Cohn was appointed as Chairman of the Board and on January, 2014, Liora Lev resigned from the Board of Directors.
None of our directors or officers has any family relationship with any other director or officer. None of our directors have service contracts that provide for benefits upon termination of his or her directorship with us, other than the payment of salary due, accrued and unpaid as of and through the date of termination. See “Item 6—Directors, Senior Management and Employees—Compensation—Employment and Consulting Agreements.”
Chairman of the Board. Under the Israeli Companies Law, without shareholder approval, a person cannot hold the role of both chairman of the board of directors and chief executive officer of a company. Furthermore, a person who is directly or indirectly subordinate to a chief executive officer of a company may not serve as the chairman of the board of directors of that company and the chairman of the board of directors may not otherwise serve in any other capacity in a company or in a subsidiary of that company other than as the chairman of the board of directors of such a subsidiary.
The Israeli Companies Law provides that an Israeli company may, under certain circumstances, exculpate an office holder from liability with respect to a breach of his duty of care toward the company if appropriate provisions allowing such exculpation are included in its articles of association. Our Articles of Association permit us to maintain directors’ and officers’ liability insurance and to indemnify our directors and officers for actions performed on behalf of us, subject to specified limitations. We maintain a directors and officers insurance policy which covers the liability of our directors and officers as allowed under the Israeli Companies Law.
The term office holder is defined in the Israeli Companies Law as a director, general manager, chief business manager, deputy general manager, vice general manager, executive vice president, vice president, any other manager directly subordinate to the general manager or any other person assuming the responsibilities of any of the foregoing positions, without regard to such person’s title. Each person listed above in “Item 6—Directors, Senior Management and Employees—Directors and Senior Management” is an office holder, as defined in the Israeli Companies Law.
External and Independent Directors
Under the Israeli Companies Law, the boards of directors of companies whose shares are publicly traded, either within or outside of Israel, are required to include at least two members who qualify as external directors.
External directors must be elected by a majority vote of the shares present and voting at a shareholders meeting, provided that either:
|·||the majority of the shares that are voted at the meeting, including at least a majority of the shares held by non-controlling shareholders who do not have a personal interest in the election of the external director (other than a personal interest not deriving from a relationship with a controlling shareholder) who voted at the meeting, excluding abstentions, vote in favor of the election of the external director; or|
|·||the total number of shares held by non-controlling, disinterested shareholders (as described in the preceding bullet point) that are voted against the election of the external director does not exceed 2% of the aggregate voting rights in the company.|
The term controlling shareholder is defined in the Israeli Companies Law as a shareholder with the ability to direct the activities of the Company, other than by virtue of being an office holder. A person may not serve as an external director of a company if (i) such person is a relative of a controlling shareholder of a company or (ii) at the date of such person’s appointment or within the prior two years, such person, such person’s relative, partner, employer or any entity under such person’s control or anyone to whom such person is subordinate, whether directly or indirectly, has or had any affiliation with (a) the company, (b) our controlling shareholder at the time of such person’s appointment or (c) any entity that is either controlled by the company or under common control with the company at the time of such appointment or during the prior two years. If a company does not have a controlling shareholder or a shareholder who holds company shares entitling him to vote at least 25% of the votes in a shareholders meeting, then a person may not serve as an external director if, such person or such person’s relative, partner, employer or any entity under such person’s control, has or had, on or within the two years preceding the date of the person’s appointment to serve as an external director, any affiliation with the chairman of our board of directors, chief executive officer, a substantial shareholder who holds at least 5% of the issued and outstanding shares of the company or voting rights which entitle him to vote at least 5% of the votes in a shareholders meeting, or the chief financial officer of the company.
The term affiliation includes:
|·||an employment relationship;|
|·||a business or professional relationship even if not maintained on a regular basis (excluding insignificant relationships);|
|·||service as an office holder, excluding service as a director in a private company prior to the first offering of its shares to the public if such director was appointed as a director of the private company in order to serve as an external director following the public offering.|
The term relative is defined as a spouse, sibling, parent, grandparent or descendant; a spouse’s sibling, parent or descendant; and the spouse of each of the foregoing persons.
In addition, no person may serve as an external director if that person’s professional activities create, or may create, a conflict of interest with that person’s responsibilities as a director or otherwise interfere with that person’s ability to serve as an external director or if the person is an employee of the Israel Securities Authority, or ISA, or of an Israeli stock exchange. Furthermore, a person may not continue to serve as an external director if he or she received direct or indirect compensation from the company for his or her role as a director. This prohibition does not apply to compensation paid or given in accordance with regulations promulgated under the Israeli Companies Law or amounts paid pursuant to indemnification and/or exculpation contracts or commitments and insurance coverage. If, at the time an external director is appointed, all current members of the board of directors not otherwise affiliated with the company are of the same gender, then that external director must be of the other gender. In addition, a director of a company may not be elected as an external director of another company if, at that time, a director of the other company is acting as an external director of the first company.
Following the termination of an external director’s service on a board of directors, such former external director and his or her spouse and children may not be provided with a direct or indirect benefit by the company, its controlling shareholder or any entity under its controlling shareholder’s control. This includes engagement to serve as an executive officer or director of the company or a company controlled by its controlling shareholder, or employment by, or providing services to, any such company for consideration, either directly or indirectly, including through a corporation controlled by the former external director, for a period of two years (and for a period of one year with respect to relatives of the former external director).
The Israeli Companies Law provides that an external director must meet certain professional qualifications or have financial and accounting expertise and that at least one external director must have financial and accounting expertise. However, if at least one of our other directors (i) meets the independence requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, (ii) meets the standards of the NYSE MKT rules for membership on the audit committee and (iii) has financial and accounting expertise as defined in the Israeli Companies Law and applicable regulations, then neither of our external directors is required to possess financial and accounting expertise as long as both possess other requisite professional qualifications. Our Board of Directors is required to determine whether a director possesses financial and accounting expertise by examining whether, due to the director’s education, experience and qualifications, the director is highly proficient and knowledgeable with regard to business-accounting issues and financial statements, to the extent that the director is able to engage in a discussion concerning the presentation of financial information in our financial statements, among others. The regulations define a director with the requisite professional qualifications as a director who satisfies one of the following requirements: (i) the director holds an academic degree in either economics, business administration, accounting, law or public administration; (ii) the director either holds an academic degree in any other field or has completed another form of higher education in our primary field of business or in an area which is relevant to the office of an external director; or (iii) the director has at least five years of experience serving in any one of the following, or at least five years of cumulative experience serving in two or more of the following capacities: (a) a senior business management position in a corporation with a substantial scope of business; (b) a senior position in our primary field of business; or (c) a senior position in public administration.
The Israeli Companies Law defines an independent director as a director who complies with the following and was appointed as such in accordance with Chapter 1 of Part 56 of the Israeli Companies Law: (1) the director complies with the qualification to serve as an external director as set out in Sections 240 (b)-(f) of the Israeli Companies Law and the audit committee has approved such compliance; and (2) the director has not served as a director of the company for more than nine consecutive years (which, for such purpose, does not include breaks in such service for periods of less than two year).
If an external directorship becomes vacant and there are less than two external directors on the board of directors at the time, then the board of directors is required under the Israeli Companies Law to call a shareholders' meeting as soon as possible to appoint a replacement external director.
Each committee of the board of directors that is authorized to exercise the powers of the board of directors must include at least one external director, except that the audit committee and compensation committee must each include all external directors then serving on the board of directors. Under the Israeli Companies Law, external directors of a company are prohibited from receiving, directly or indirectly, any compensation for their services as external directors, other than compensation and reimbursement of expenses pursuant to applicable regulations promulgated under the Companies Law. Compensation of an external director is determined prior to his or her appointment and may not be changed during his or her term subject to certain exceptions.
Yechezkel Barenholz and Gil Oren serve as external directors on our Board of Directors pursuant to the provisions of the Israeli Companies Law. They both serve on our audit committee and our compensation committee. Our Board of Directors has determined that Gil Oren possesses accounting and financial expertise, and that both of our external directors possess the requisite professional qualifications.
The Israeli Companies Law requires public companies to appoint an audit committee. The responsibilities of the audit committee include identifying irregularities in the management of our business and approving related party transactions as required by law. An audit committee must consist of at least three directors, including all of its external directors and a majority of independent directors. The chairman of the board of directors, any director employed by or otherwise providing services to the company, and a controlling shareholder or any relative of a controlling shareholder, may not be a member of the audit committee. An audit committee may not approve an action or a transaction with a controlling shareholder, or with an office holder, unless at the time of approval two external directors are serving as members of the audit committee and at least one of the external directors was present at the meeting in which an approval was granted.
Our audit committee is currently comprised of three independent non-executive directors. The audit committee is chaired by Gil Oren, who serves as the audit committee financial expert, with Yechezkel Barenholtz and Guy Regev as members. Our audit committee meets at least four times a year and monitors the adequacy of our internal controls, accounting policies and financial reporting. It regularly reviews the results of the ongoing risk self-assessment process, which we undertake, and our interim and annual reports prior to their submission for approval by the full Board of Directors. The audit committee oversees the activities of the internal auditor, sets its annual tasks and goals and reviews its reports. The audit committee reviews the objectivity and independence of the external auditors and also considers the scope of their work and fees.
Our audit committee provides assistance to our Board of Directors in fulfilling its legal and fiduciary obligations in matters involving our accounting, auditing, financial reporting, internal control and legal compliance functions by pre-approving the services performed by our independent accountants and reviewing their reports regarding our accounting practices and systems of internal control over financial reporting. Our audit committee also oversees the audit efforts of our independent accountants and takes those actions that it deems necessary to satisfy itself that the accountants are independent of management.
Under the Israeli Companies Law, our audit committee is responsible for (i) determining whether there are deficiencies in the business management practices of our company, including in consultation with our internal auditor or the independent auditor, and making recommendations to the Board of Directors to improve such practices and amend such deficiencies, (ii) determining whether certain related party transactions (including transactions in which an office holder has a personal interest) should be deemed as material or extraordinary, and to approve such transactions (which may be approved according to certain criteria set out by our audit committee on an annual basis) (see "—Approval of related party transactions under Israeli Law"), (iii) to establish procedures to be followed in respect of related party transactions with a controlling shareholder (where such are not extraordinary transactions), which may include, where applicable, the establishment of a competitive process for such transaction, under the supervision of the audit committee, or individual, or other committee or body selected by the audit committee, in accordance with criteria determined by the audit committee; (iv) to determine procedures for approving certain related party transactions with a controlling shareholder, which having been determined by the audit committee not to be extraordinary transactions, were also determined by the audit committee not to be negligible transactions; (v) where the Board of Directors approves the working plan of the internal auditor, to examine such working plan before its submission to the Board and propose amendments thereto, (iv) examining our internal controls and internal auditor's performance, including whether the internal auditor has sufficient resources and tools to dispose of its responsibilities, (v) examining the scope of our auditor's work and compensation and submitting a recommendation with respect thereto to our Board of Directors or shareholders, depending on which of them is considering the appointment of our auditor, and (vi) establishing procedures for the handling of employees' complaints as to the management of our business and the protection to be provided to such employees.
We have adopted a written charter for our audit committee, setting forth its responsibilities as outlined by the regulations of the SEC. In addition, our audit committee has adopted procedures for the receipt, retention and treatment of complaints we may receive regarding accounting, internal accounting controls or auditing matters and the submission by our employees of concerns regarding questionable accounting or auditing matters. In addition, SEC rules mandate that the audit committee of a listed issuer consist of at least three members, all of whom must be independent, as such term is defined by rules and regulations promulgated by the SEC. We are in compliance with the independence requirements of the SEC rules.
The Israeli Companies Law regulations require each public company to appoint a committee that examines the financial statements, which shall consist of at least three members, of which the majority among them shall be independent directors and such committee’s chairman shall be an external director. The committee’s duties are, among others, to examine our financial statements and to recommend and report to the board of directors of the company regarding any problem or defect found in such financial statements.
Any person who is not eligible to serve on the audit committee is further restricted from participating in its meetings and votes, unless the chairman of the audit committee determines that such person’s presence is necessary in order to present a certain matter; provided, however, that company employees who are not controlling shareholders or relatives of such shareholders may be present in the meetings, but not for actual voting, and likewise, company counsel and secretary who are not controlling shareholders or relatives of such shareholders may be present in the meetings and for actual voting if such presence is requested by the audit committee.
In addition to the above, all such committee’s members must apply with the following requirements:
|·||All members shall be members of the board of directors of the company.|
|·||At least one of the committee’s members shall have financial and accounting expertise and the rest of the committee’s members must have the ability to read and understand financial statements.|
Our company, through our audit committee, is in full compliance with the above requirements.
Financial Statement Examination Committee
Under the Israeli Companies Law, the board of directors of a public company must appoint a financial statement examination committee, which consists of members with accounting and financial expertise or the ability to read and understand financial statements. According to a resolution of our Board of Directors, the audit committee has been assigned the responsibilities and duties of a financial statements examination committee, as permitted under relevant regulations promulgated under the Israeli Companies Law. From time to time as necessary and required to approve our financial statements, the audit committee holds separate meetings, prior to the scheduled meetings of the entire Board of Directors regarding financial statement approval. The function of a financial statements examination committee is to discuss and provide recommendations to its board of directors (including the report of any deficiency found) with respect to the following issues: (i) estimations and assessments made in connection with the preparation of financial statements; (ii) internal controls related to the financial statements; (iii) completeness and propriety of the disclosure in the financial statements; (iv) the accounting policies adopted and the accounting treatments implemented in material matters of the company; (v) value evaluations, including the assumptions and assessments on which evaluations are based and the supporting data in the financial statements. Our independent auditors and our internal auditors are invited to attend all meetings of audit committee when it is acting in the role of the financial statements examination committee.
Amendment no. 20 to the Companies Law was published on November 12, 2012 and became effective on December 12, 2012, or Amendment no. 20. In general, Amendment no. 20 requires public companies to appoint a compensation committee and to adopt a compensation policy with respect to its officers, or the Compensation Policy. In addition, Amendment no. 20 addresses the corporate approval process required for a public company's engagement with its officers (with specific reference to a director, a non-director officer, a chief executive officer and controlling shareholders and their relatives who are employed by the company).
The compensation committee shall be nominated by the board of directors and be comprised of its members. The compensation committee must consist of at least three members. All of the external directors must serve on the compensation committee and constitute a majority of its members. The remaining members of the compensation committee must be directors who qualify to serve as members of the audit committee (including the fact that they are independent) and their compensation should be identical to the compensation paid to the external directors of the company.
Similar to the rules that apply to the audit committee, the compensation committee may not include the chairman of the board, or any director employed by the company, by a controlling shareholder or by any entity controlled by a controlling shareholder, or any director providing services to the company, to a controlling shareholder or to any entity controlled by a controlling shareholder on a regular basis, or any director whose primary income is dependent on a controlling shareholder, and may not include a controlling shareholder or any of its relatives. Individuals who are not permitted to be compensation committee members may not participate in the committee’s meetings other than to present a particular issue; provided, however, that an employee that is not a controlling shareholder or relative may participate in the committee’s discussions, but not in any vote, and our legal counsel and corporate secretary may participate in the committee’s discussions and votes if requested by the committee.
The roles of the compensation committee are, among others, to: (i) recommend to the board of directors the Compensation Policy for office holders and recommend to the board once every three years the extension of a Compensation Policy that had been approved for a period of more than three years; (ii) recommend to the directors any update of the Compensation Policy, from time to time, and examine its implementation; (iii) decide whether to approve the terms of office and of employment of office holders that require approval of the compensation committee; and (iv) decide, in certain circumstances, whether to exempt the approval of terms of office of a chief executive officer from the requirement of shareholder approval.
The compensation policy requires the approval of the general meeting of shareholders with a “Special Majority”, which requires a majority of the shareholders of the company who are not either a controlling shareholder or an "interested party" in the proposed resolution, or that shareholders holding less than 2% of the voting power in the company voted against the proposed resolution at such meeting. However, under special circumstances, the board of directors may approve the compensation policy without shareholder approval, if the compensation committee and thereafter the board of directors decided, based on substantiated reasons after they have reviewed the compensation policy again, that the compensation policy is in the best interest of the company.
Under the Israeli Companies Law, our compensation policy must generally serve as the basis for corporate approvals with respect to the financial terms of employment or engagement of office holders, including exemption, insurance, indemnification or any monetary payment or obligation of payment in respect of employment or engagement. The compensation policy must relate to certain factors, including advancement of the company's objective, the company's business plan and its long term strategy, and creation of appropriate incentives for office holders. It must also consider, among other things, the company's risk management, size and nature of its operations. The compensation policy must furthermore consider the following additional factors:
|·||The knowledge, skills, expertise, and accomplishments of the relevant office holder;|
|·||The office holder's roles and responsibilities and prior compensation agreements with him or her;|
|·||The relationship between the terms offered and the average compensation of the other employees of the company, including those employed through manpower companies;|
|·||The impact of disparities in salary upon work relationships in the company;|
|·||The possibility of reducing variable compensation at the discretion of the board of directors; the possibility of setting a limit on the exercise value of non-cash variable equity-based compensation; and|
|·||As to severance compensation, the period of service of the office holder, the terms of his or her compensation during such service period, the company's performance during that period of service, the person's contributions towards the company's achievement of its goals and the maximization of its profits, and the circumstances under which the person is leaving the company.|
The Compensation Policy must also include the following principles:
|·||the link between variable compensation and the long term performance and measurable criteria;|
|·||the relationship between variable and fixed compensation, and the ceiling for the value of variable compensation;|
|·||the conditions under which an office holder would be required to repay compensation paid to him or her if it was later shown that the data upon which such compensation was based was inaccurate and was required to be restated in the company's financial statements;|
|·||the minimum holding or vesting period for variable, equity-based compensation; and|
|·||maximum limits for severance compensation.|
The Compensation Policy was approved by the general meeting of shareholders after discussions and recommendation of the compensation committee and approval by the Board of Directors on January 6, 2014. Moreover, the approval of the compensation committee is required in order to approve terms of office and/or employment of office holders.
Mr. Gil Oren is the chairman of our compensation committee. Mr. Chezy Barenholz and Mr. Guy Regev serve as the other members of our compensation committee.
Approval of Related Party Transactions under the Israeli Companies Law
Fiduciary duties of the office holders
The Israeli Companies Law imposes a duty of care and a duty of loyalty on all office holders of a company. The duty of care of an office holder is based on the duty of care set forth in connection with the tort of negligence under the Israeli Torts Ordinance (New Version) 5728-1968. This duty of care requires an office holder to act with the degree of proficiency with which a reasonable office holder in the same position would have acted under the same circumstances. The duty of care includes a duty to use reasonable means, in light of the circumstances, to obtain:
|·||information on the advisability of a given action brought for his or her approval or performed by virtue of his or her position; and|
|·||all other important information pertaining to these action|
The duty of loyalty requires an office holder to act in good faith and for the benefit of the company, and includes the duty to:
|·||refrain from any act involving a conflict of interest between the performance of his or her duties in the company and his or her other duties or personal affairs;|
|·||refrain from any activity that is competitive with the business of the company;|
|·||refrain from exploiting any business opportunity of the company for the purpose of gaining a personal advantage for himself or herself or others; and|
|·||disclose to the company any information or documents relating to our affairs which the office holder received as a result of his or her position as an office holder.|
We may approve an act performed in breach of the duty of loyalty of an office holder provided that the office holder acted in good faith, the act or its approval does not harm the company, and the office holder discloses his or her personal interest, as described below.
Disclosure of personal interests of an office holder and approval of acts and transactions
The Israeli Companies Law requires that an office holder promptly disclose to the company any personal interest that he or she may have and all related material information or documents relating to any existing or proposed transaction by the company. An interested office holder’s disclosure must be made promptly and in any event no later than the first meeting of the board of directors at which the transaction is considered. An office holder is not obligated to disclose such information if the personal interest of the office holder derives solely from the personal interest of his or her relative in a transaction that is not considered as an extraordinary transaction.
The term personal interest is defined under the Israeli Companies Law to include the personal interest of a person in an action or in the business of a company, including the personal interest of such person’s relative or the interest of any corporation in which the person is an interested party, but excluding a personal interest stemming solely from the fact of holding shares in the company. A personal interest furthermore includes the personal interest of a person for whom the office holder holds a voting proxy or the interest of the office holder with respect to his or her vote on behalf of the shareholder for whom he or she holds a proxy even if such shareholder itself has no personal interest in the approval of the matter. An office holder is not, however, obliged to disclose a personal interest if it derives solely from the personal interest of his or her relative in a transaction that is not considered an extraordinary transaction.
Under the Israeli Companies Law, an extraordinary transaction which requires approval is defined as any of the following:
|·||a transaction other than in the ordinary course of business;|
|·||a transaction that is not on market terms; or|
|·||a transaction that may have a material impact on our profitability, assets or liabilities.|
Under the Israeli Companies Law, once an office holder has complied with the disclosure requirement described above, a company may approve a transaction between the company and the office holder or a third party in which the office holder has a personal interest, or approve an action by the office holder that would otherwise be deemed a breach of duty of loyalty. However, a company may not approve a transaction or action that is adverse to our interest or that is not performed by the office holder in good faith.
Under the Companies Law, unless the articles of association of a company provide otherwise, a transaction with an office holder, a transaction with a third party in which the office holder has a personal interest, and an action of an office holder that would otherwise be deemed a breach of duty of loyalty requires approval by the board of directors. Our Articles of Association do not provide otherwise. If the transaction or action considered is (i) an extraordinary transaction, (ii) an action of an office holder that would otherwise be deemed a breach of duty of loyalty and may have a material impact on a company’s profitability, assets or liabilities, (iii) an undertaking to indemnify or insure an office holder who is not a director, or (iv) for matters considered an undertaking concerning the terms of compensation of an office holder who is not a director, including, an undertaking to indemnify or insure such office holder, then approval by the audit committee is required prior to approval by the board of directors. Arrangements regarding the compensation, indemnification or insurance of a director require the approval of the audit committee, board of directors and shareholders, in that order.
A director who has a personal interest in a matter that is considered at a meeting of the board of directors or the audit committee may generally not be present at the meeting or vote on the matter, unless a majority of the directors or members of the audit committee have a personal interest in the matter or the chairman of the audit committee or board of directors, as applicable, determines that he or she should be present to present the transaction that is subject to approval. If a majority of the directors have a personal interest in the matter, such matter would also require approval of the shareholders of the company.
Disclosure of personal interests of a controlling shareholder and approval of transactions
Under the Israeli Companies Law and a recent amendment thereto, the disclosure requirements that apply to an office holder also apply to a controlling shareholder of a public company. See “— Audit Committee” for a definition of controlling shareholder. Extraordinary transactions with a controlling shareholder or in which a controlling shareholder has a personal interest, including a private placement in which a controlling shareholder has a personal interest, as well as transactions for the provision of services whether directly or indirectly by a controlling shareholder or his or her relative, or a company such controlling shareholder controls, and transactions concerning the terms of engagement of a controlling shareholder or a controlling shareholder’s relative, whether as an office holder or an employee, require the approval of the audit committee, the board of directors and a majority of the shares voted by the shareholders of the company participating and voting on the matter in a shareholders’ meeting. In addition, such shareholder approval must fulfill one of the following requirements:
|·||at least a majority of the shares held by shareholders who have no personal interest in the transaction and are voting at the meeting must be voted in favor of approving the transaction, excluding abstentions; or|
|·||the shares voted by shareholders who have no personal interest in the transaction who vote against the transaction represent no more than 2% of the voting rights in the company.|
To the extent that any such transaction with a controlling shareholder is for a period extending beyond three years, approval is required once every three years, unless the audit committee determines that the duration of the transaction is reasonable given the circumstances related thereto.
Duties of shareholders
Under the Israeli Companies Law, a shareholder has a duty to refrain from abusing its power in the company and to act in good faith and in an acceptable manner in exercising its rights and performing its obligations to the company and other shareholders, including, among other things, voting at general meetings of shareholders on the following matters:
|·||an amendment to the articles of association;|
|·||an increase in our authorized share capital;|
|·||an increase in our authorized share capital; and|
|·||the approval of related party transactions and acts of office holders that require shareholder approval.|
A shareholder also has a general duty to refrain from discriminating against other shareholders.
The remedies generally available upon a breach of contract will also apply to a breach of the above mentioned duties, and in the event of discrimination against other shareholders, additional remedies are available to the injured shareholder.
In addition, any controlling shareholder, any shareholder that knows that its vote can determine the outcome of a shareholder vote and any shareholder that, under a company’s articles of association, has the power to appoint or prevent the appointment of an office holder, or has another power with respect to a company, is under a duty to act with fairness towards the company. The Israeli Companies Law does not describe the substance of this duty except to state that the remedies generally available upon a breach of contract will also apply in the event of a breach of the duty to act with fairness, taking the shareholder’s position in the company into account.
Exculpation, Insurance and Indemnification of Directors and Officers
Under the Israeli Companies Law, a company may not exculpate an office holder from liability for a breach of the duty of loyalty. An Israeli company may exculpate an office holder in advance from liability to us, in whole or in part, for damages caused to us as a result of a breach of duty of care but only if a provision authorizing such exculpation is included in its articles of association. Our amended and restated articles of association include such a provision. We may not exculpate in advance a director from liability arising out of a prohibited dividend or distribution to shareholders.
Under the Israeli Companies Law and the Israeli Securities Law, a company may indemnify, or undertake in advance to indemnify, an office holder, provided its articles of association include a provision authorizing such indemnification, for the following liabilities and expenses imposed on an office holder or incurred by office holder due to acts performed by him or her as an office holder:
|·||Financial liability incurred by or imposed on him or her in favor of another person pursuant to a judgment, including a settlement or arbitrator's award approved by a court. However, if an undertaking to indemnify an office holder with respect to such liability is provided in advance, then such an undertaking must be limited to events which, in the opinion of the board of directors, can be foreseen based on our activities when the undertaking to indemnify is given, and to an amount or according to criteria determined by the board of directors as reasonable under the circumstances, and such undertaking shall detail the abovementioned foreseen events and amount or criteria;|
|·||Reasonable litigation expenses, including attorneys' fees, incurred by the office holder as a result of an investigation or proceeding instituted against him or her by an authority authorized to conduct such investigation or proceeding, provided that (i) no indictment was filed against such office holder as a result of such investigation or proceeding; and (ii) no financial liability was imposed upon him or her as a substitute for the criminal proceeding as a result of such investigation or proceeding or, if such financial liability was imposed, it was imposed with respect to an offense that does not require proof of criminal intent or as a monetary sanction;|
|·||Reasonable litigation expenses, including attorneys' fees, incurred by the office holder or imposed by a court in proceedings instituted against him or her by us, on our behalf, or by a third party, or in connection with criminal proceedings in which the office holder was acquitted, or as a result of a conviction for an offense that does not require proof of criminal intent; and|
|·||Expenses, including reasonable litigation expenses and legal fees, incurred by an office holder in relation to an administrative proceeding instituted against such office holder, or certain compensation payments required to be made to an injured party, pursuant to certain provisions of the Israeli Securities Law.|
Under the Israeli Companies Law, a company may insure an office holder against the following liabilities incurred for acts performed by him or her as an office holder if and to the extent provided in the Company's articles of association:
|·||a breach of the duty of loyalty to us, provided that the office holder acted in good faith and had a reasonable basis to believe that the act would not harm us;|
|·||a breach of duty of care to us or to a third party; and|
|·||a financial liability imposed on the office holder in favor of a third party.|
Subject to the provisions of the Companies Law and the Securities Law, we may also enter into a contract to insure an office holder, in respect of expenses, including reasonable litigation expenses and legal fees, incurred by an office holder in relation to an administrative proceeding instituted against such office holder or payment required to be made to an injured party, pursuant to certain provisions of the Securities Law.
Nevertheless, under the Israeli Companies Law, a company may not indemnify, exculpate or insure an office holder against any of the following:
|·||a breach of fiduciary duty, except for indemnification and insurance for a breach of the duty of loyalty to us in the event office holder acted in good faith and had a reasonable basis to believe that the act would not prejudice us;|
|·||a breach of duty of care committed intentionally or recklessly, excluding a breach arising out of the negligent conduct of the office holder;|
|·||an act or omission committed with intent to derive unlawful personal benefit; or|
|·||a fine, monetary sanction, penalty or forfeit levied against the office holder.|
Under the Israeli Companies Law, exculpation, indemnification and insurance of office holders require the approval of the compensation committee, board of directors and, in certain circumstances, the shareholders. Our amended and restated articles of association permit us to exculpate, indemnify and insure our office holders to the fullest extent permitted by the Israeli Companies Law.
Approval of Compensation to Our Officers
The Israeli Companies Law prescribes that compensation to officers must be approved by a company’s Board of Directors.
As detailed above, our compensation committee consists of three independent directors: Yechezkel Barenholz, Gil Oren and Guy Regev. The responsibilities of the compensation committee are to set our overall policy on executive remuneration and to decide the specific remuneration, benefits and terms of employment for directors, officers and the Chief Executive Officer.
The objectives of the compensation committee’s policies are that such individuals should receive compensation which is appropriate given their performance, level of responsibility and experience. Compensation packages should also allow us to attract and retain executives of the necessary caliber while, at the same time, motivating them to achieve the highest level of corporate performance in line with the best interests of shareholders. In order to determine the elements and level of remuneration appropriate to each executive director, the compensation committee reviews surveys on executive pay, obtains external professional advice and considers individual performance.
Under the Israeli Companies Law, the board of directors must appoint an internal auditor, nominated by the audit committee. The role of the internal auditor is to examine, among other matters, whether our actions comply with the law and orderly business procedure. Under the Israeli Companies Law, an internal auditor may not be:
|·||a person (or a relative of a person) who holds more than 5% of our shares;|
|·||a person (or a relative of a person) who has the power to appoint a director or the general manager of the company;|
|·||an executive officer or director of the company (or a relative thereof); or|
|·||a member of our independent accounting firm, or anyone on his or her behalf.|
We comply with the requirement of the Israeli Companies Law relating to internal auditors. Our internal auditors examine whether our various activities comply with the law and orderly business procedure. Our internal auditor is Daniel Spira.
As of December 31, 2013, we had nine employees, four of whom were employed in management and administration, three of whom were employed in research and development and two of whom were employed in management, research and development. All of these employees were located in Israel. As of December 21, 2012, we had eight employees.
While none of our employees are party to any collective bargaining agreements, certain provisions of the collective bargaining agreements between the Histadrut (General Federation of Labor in Israel) and the Coordination Bureau of Economic Organizations (including the Industrialists’ Associations) are applicable to our employees by order of the Israel Ministry of Labor. These provisions primarily concern the length of the workday, minimum daily wages for professional workers, pension fund benefits for all employees, insurance for work-related accidents, procedures for dismissing employees, determination of severance pay and other conditions of employment. We generally provide our employees with benefits and working conditions beyond the required minimums. We have never experienced any employment-related work stoppages and believe our relationship with our employees is good.
E. Share Ownership.
The following table sets forth information regarding the beneficial ownership of our outstanding ordinary shares as of March 26, 2014 by the members of our senior management and Board of Directors, individually and as a group. The beneficial ownership of ordinary shares is based on the 17,667,938 ordinary shares outstanding as of March 26, 2014 (which excludes 446,827 ordinary shares held in treasury) and is determined in accordance with the rules of the SEC and generally includes any ordinary shares over which a person exercises sole or shared voting or investment power. For purposes of the table below, we deem shares subject to options or warrants that are currently exercisable or exercisable within 60 days of March 26, 2014, to be outstanding and to be beneficially owned by the person holding the options or warrants for the purposes of computing the percentage ownership of that person but we do not treat them as outstanding for the purpose of computing the percentage ownership of any other person.
|Name of Beneficial Owner||Number of|
|Ilan Cohn, PhD.|
Chairman of the Board
|Pnina Fishman, PhD.|
Chief Executive Officer and Director
Chief Operating Officer
|Abraham Sartani, Ph.D.|
VP for Business Development
|Directors and Executive Officers as a group (7 persons)||917,461||5.1||%|
|*||Denotes less than 1%|
|(1)||Includes (i) 133,567 ordinary shares, (ii) 420,000 registered warrants (Series 9) to purchase 16,800 ordinary shares at an exercise price of NIS 0.85 per warrant and expiring on May 1, 2015, and (iii) 2,032,136 unregistered options to purchase 81,285 ordinary shares at an exercise price of NIS 1.247 per option and expiring on March 20, 2017. All such warrants and options are fully vested.|
|(2)||Includes (i) 263,433 ordinary shares, (ii) 90,000 registered warrants (Series 9) to purchase 3,600 ordinary shares at an exercise price of NIS 0.85 per warrant and expiring on May 1, 2015, and (iii) 7,570,761 unregistered options to purchase 302,830 ordinary shares, of which 4,890,761 options have an exercise price of NIS 0.50 per option and expire on August 23, 2016 and 2,680,000 options have an exercise price of NIS 0.644 per option and expire on January 13, 2021. All such warrants and options are fully vested.|
|(3)||Includes 992,403 unregistered options to purchase 39,696 ordinary shares, of which (i) 28,341 are exercisable into 1,134 at an exercise price of NIS 0.01 per option and expire on August 3, 2013, (ii) 322,175 are exercisable into 12,887 ordinary shares at an exercise price of NIS 0.45 per option and expire on November 29, 2015, (iii) 554,387 are exercisable into 22,175 ordinary shares at an exercise price of NIS 0.307 per option and expire on November 26, 2018, (iv) 56,250 are exercisable into 2,250 ordinary shares at an exercise price of NIS 0.385 per option and expire on May 2, 2022, and (v) 31,250 are exercisable into 1,250 ordinary shares at an exercise price of NIS 0.326 per option and expire on March 20, 2023. All such options are fully vested or will vest within 60 days from March 26, 2014. Excludes 112,500 unregistered options to purchase 4,500 ordinary shares that vest in more than 60 days from March 26, 2014.|
|(4)||Includes (i) 24,240 ordinary shares, (ii) 36,000 registered warrants (Series 9) to purchase 1,440 ordinary shares at an exercise price of NIS 0.85 per warrant and expiring on May 1, 2015, (iii) 250,000 registered warrants (Series 10) to purchase 10,000 ordinary shares at an exercise price of NIS 0.394 per warrant and expiring on October 31, 2015, (iv) 250,000 registered warrants (Series 11) to purchase 10,000 ordinary shares at an exercise price of NIS 0.392 per warrant and expiring on April 30, 2016, and (v) 187,500 unregistered options are exercisable into 7,500 ordinary shares at an exercise price of NIS 0.60 per option and expire on May 2, 2023. All such warrants and options are fully vested or will vest within 60 days from March 26, 2014. Excludes 62,500 unregistered options to purchase 2,500 ordinary shares that vest in more than 60 days from March 26, 2014.|
|(5)||Includes (i) 613 ordinary shares, and (ii) 287,055 unregistered options to purchase 11,482 ordinary shares, of which 193,305 are exercisable into 7,732 ordinary shares at an exercise price of NIS 0.45 per option and expire on August 23, 2016, and 93,750 are exercisable into 3,750 ordinary shares at an exercise price of NIS 0.385 per option and expire on August 14, 2022. All such options are fully vested or will vest within 60 days. Excludes 6,250 unregistered options to purchase 250 ordinary shares that vest in more than 60 days from March 26, 2014.|
|(6)||Includes 274,375 unregistered options to purchase 10,975 ordinary shares, of which (i) 186,875 have are exercisable into 7,475 ordinary shares at an exercise price of NIS 0.754 per option and expire on February 21, 2021, (ii) 56,250 are exercisable into 2,250 ordinary shares at an exercise price of NIS 0.385 per option and expire on May 2, 2022 and (iii) 31,250 are exercisable into 1,250 ordinary shares at an exercise price of NIS 0.326 per option and expire on March 20, 2023. All such options are fully vested or will vest within 60 days from March 26, 2014. Excludes 155,625 unregistered options to purchase 6,225 ordinary shares that vest in more than 60 days from March 26, 2014.|
Share Option Plans
We maintain the following share option plans for our and our subsidiary’s employees, directors and consultants. In addition to the discussion below, see Note 15b of our consolidated financial statements, included in “Item 18. Financial Statements.”
Our Board of Directors administers our share option plans and has the authority to designate all terms of the options granted under our plans including the grantees, exercise prices, grant dates, vesting schedules and expiration dates, which may be no more than ten years after the grant date. Options may not be granted with an exercise price of less than the fair market value of our ordinary shares on the date of grant, unless otherwise determined by our Board of Directors.
As of December 31, 2013, we have granted to employees, directors and consultants options that are outstanding to purchase up to 1,125,302 ordinary shares, par value NIS 0.25, pursuant to the 2003 share option plan, or the 2003 Plan, and pursuant to certain grants apart from these plans also discussed below under Non-Plan Share Options.
2003 Share Option Plan
Under the 2003 Plan we granted options during the period between 2003 and 2013, at exercise prices between NIS 0.25 and NIS 31.175 per ordinary share, par value NIS 0.25. Options to purchase up to 1,132,514 ordinary shares, par value NIS 0.25, were available to be granted under the 2003 Plan. As of December 31, 2013, 15,535,600 options to purchase 621,424 ordinary shares were outstanding. Options granted to Israeli employees were in accordance with section 102 of the Income Tax Ordinance, 1961, or the Tax Ordinance, under the capital gains option set forth in section 102(b)(2) of the Tax Ordinance. The options are non-transferable.
The option term is for a period of ten years from the grant date. The options were granted for no consideration. The options vest over a two or four year period. As of December 31, 2013, options to purchase 549,4 53 ordinary shares, par value NIS 0.25, were fully vested.
Non-Plan Share Options
In addition to the options granted under our share option plans, at December 31, 2013, there were outstanding and exercisable options to purchase 503,878 ordinary shares, par value NIS 0.25, which had been granted to consultants and members of our Scientific Advisory Board, not under the 2003 Plan. The options were granted at exercise prices between NIS 0.25 and NIS 15 per ordinary share, par value NIS 0.25. As of December 31, 2013, options to purchase 503,878 ordinary shares, par value NIS 0.25, were fully vested.
ITEM 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions
A. Major Shareholders.
The following table sets forth certain information regarding the beneficial ownership of our outstanding ordinary shares as of March 26, 2014, by each person who we know beneficially owns 5.0% or more of the outstanding ordinary shares. Each of our shareholders has identical voting rights with respect to its shares. All of the information with respect to beneficial ownership of the ordinary shares is given to the best of our knowledge. The beneficial ownership of ordinary shares is based on the 17,667,938 ordinary shares outstanding as of March 14, 2014 (which excludes 446,827 ordinary shares held in treasury) and is determined in accordance with the rules of the SEC and generally includes any ordinary shares over which a person exercises sole or shared voting or investment power. For purposes of the table below, we deem shares subject to options or warrants that are currently exercisable or exercisable within 60 days of March 26, 2014, to be outstanding and to be beneficially owned by the person holding the options or warrants for the purposes of computing the percentage ownership of that person but we do not treat them as outstanding for the purpose of computing the percentage ownership of any other person.
|Name of Beneficial Owner||Number of|
|Shaked Group (Tal Shaked & Haya Shaked)||1,223,796||(1)||6.9||%|
|(1)||Includes 372,622 ordinary shares held by Mrs. Haya Shaked and 851,174 ordinary shares held by her daughter, Mrs. Tal Shaked.|
On June 17, 2013, OphthaliX sold 268,095 ordinary shares on the TASE, for aggregate consideration of US$ 510,714. After such sale, OphthaliX owns 446,827 ordinary shares of our company.
To our knowledge, as of March 26, 2014 there were approximately 22 shareholders of record with a United States address which held 5,433,119 ordinary shares, directly or represented by ADSs, representing in the aggregate approximately 31% of our then outstanding share capital. These numbers are not representative of the number of beneficial holders of our ordinary shares nor is it representative of where such beneficial holders reside since many of these ordinary shares were held of record by brokers or other nominees.
B. Related Party Transactions.
The following is a description of some of the transactions with related parties to which we, or our subsidiaries, are party, and which were in effect within the past three fiscal years. The descriptions provided below are summaries of the terms of such agreements, do not purport to be complete and are qualified in their entirety by the complete agreements.
We believe that we have executed all of our transactions with related parties on terms no less favorable to us than those we could have obtained from unaffiliated third parties. We are required by Israeli law to ensure that all future transactions between us and our officers, directors and principal shareholders and their affiliates are approved by a majority of our Board of Directors, including a majority of the independent and disinterested members of our Board of Directors, and that they are on terms no less favorable to us than those that we could obtain from unaffiliated third parties.
Employment and Consulting Agreements
We have or have had employment, consulting or related agreements with each member of our senior management. See “Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees—Compensation—Employment and Consulting Agreements”.
Our Articles of Association permit us to exculpate, indemnify and insure our directors and officeholders to the fullest extent permitted by the Israeli Companies Law. We have obtained directors’ and officers’ insurance for each of our officers and directors and have entered into indemnification agreements with all of our current officers and directors.
Agreements with Subsidiaries
See “Item 10. Additional Information—Material Contracts—OphthaliX Agreements” for a description of agreements with OphthaliX and Eye-Fite.
C. Interests of Experts and Counsel.
ITEM 8. Financial Information
A. Consolidated Financial Statements and Other Financial Information
See “Item 18. Financial Statements” for a list of all financial statements filed as part of this Annual Report on Form 20-F.
We are not involved in any legal or arbitration proceedings that may have or have had in the recent past, significant effects on our financial position or profitability.
We have never declared or paid cash dividends to our shareholders. Currently we do not intend to pay cash dividends. We intend to reinvest any earnings in developing and expanding our business. Any future determination relating to our dividend policy will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on a number of factors, including future earnings, our financial condition, operating results, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects, applicable Israeli law and other factors our Board of Directors may deem relevant.
B. Significant Changes
See “Note 21:- Subsequent Events” to our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report beginning on page F-1 for a discussion of significant events that have occurred since December 31, 2013.
ITEM 9. The Offer and Listing
A. Offer and Listing Details
Our ordinary shares have been trading on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange, or TASE, under the symbol “CFBI” since October 2005.
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the reported high and low closing sale prices of our ordinary shares on the TASE in NIS and U.S. dollars. U.S. dollar per ordinary share amounts are calculated using the U.S. dollar representative rate of exchange on the date to which the high or low market price is applicable, as reported by the Bank of Israel. As of December 31, 2013, we had 15,702,727 ordinary shares outstanding (excluding 446,827 ordinary shares held as tresury shares). See “Item 10—Additional Information—Memorandum and Articles of Association” for a detailed description of the rights attaching to the shares.
We effected a 1-for-25 reverse share split with respect to our ordinary shares, options and warrants on May 12, 2013. Reported prices in the table below have been adjusted to give retroactive effect to the share split.
|Price Per |
Ordinary Share (1)
|Price Per |
Ordinary Share (1)
|Fourth Quarter 2013||15.600||9.700||4.453||2.789|
|Third Quarter 2013||8.571||6.217||2.423||1.725|
|Second Quarter 2013||8.450||6.752||2.336||1.859|
|First Quarter 2013||10.825||8.000||2.900||2.198|
|Fourth Quarter 2012||10.975||7.750||2.900||2.075|
|Third Quarter 2012||9.975||7.325||2.475||1.800|
|Second Quarter 2012||11.900||7.600||3.175||1.925|
|First Quarter 2012||12.400||9.450||3.225||2.550|
|Most Recent Six Months:|
|March 2014 (through March 26, 2014)||10.340||9.531||2.958||2.732|
|(1)||We effected a 1-for-25 reverse share split with respect to our ordinary shares, options and warrants on May 12, 2013. Reported prices in the table below have been adjusted to give retroactive effect to the share split.|
On March 26, 2014, the last reported sales price of our ordinary shares on the TASE was NIS 9.531 per share, or $2.732 per share. On March 26, 2014, the exchange rate of the NIS to the dollar was $1.00 = NIS 3.489 as reported by the Bank of Israel.
For information with respect to our warrants, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Warrants”.
On October 2, 2012, our ADSs began trading over the counter, or OTC, in the United States under the symbol “CANFY” and on November 19, 2013, our ADSs began trading on the NYSE MKT under the symbol “CANF.” As of December 31, 2013, we had 963,742 ADSs outstanding. One ADS represents two ordinary shares. See “Item 12—Description of Securities Other Than Equity Securities—American Depositary Shares” for a description of the rights attaching to the ADSs.
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the reported high and low closing sale prices of our ADSs on the OTC and Nasdaq Capital Market in U.S. dollars.
|Price Per |
|2012 (from October 2, 2012)||5.50||4.74|
|Fourth Quarter 2013||8.60||5.54|
|Third Quarter 2013||5.03||3.30|
|Second Quarter 2013||5.15||3.87|
|First Quarter 2013||5.10||4.50|
|Fourth Quarter 2012 (from October 2, 2012)||5.50||4.74|
|Most Recent Six Months:|
|March 2014 (through March 26, 2014)||5.96||5.51|
|(1)||We effected a 1-for-25 reverse share split with respect to our ordinary shares, options and warrants on May 12, 2013. Reported prices in the table below have been adjusted to give retroactive effect to the share split.|
On March 26, 2014, the last reported sales price of our ADSs on the NYSE MKT was $5.51 per share.
B. Plan of Distribution.
See “—Offer and Listing Details” above.
D. Selling Shareholders.
F. Expenses of the Issue.
ITEM 10. Additional Information
A. Share Capital.
B. Memorandum and Articles of Association.
Our number with the Israeli Registrar of Companies is 512022153. Our purpose is set forth in Section 3 of our Articles of Association and includes every lawful purpose.
Our ordinary shares that are fully paid for are issued in registered form and may be freely transferred under our Articles of Association, unless the transfer is restricted or prohibited by applicable law or the rules of a stock exchange on which the shares are traded. The ownership or voting of our ordinary shares by non-residents of Israel is not restricted in any way by our Articles of Association or the laws of the State of Israel, except for ownership by nationals of some countries that are, or have been, in a state of war with Israel.
Pursuant to the Israeli Companies Law and our Articles of Association, our Board of Directors may exercise all powers and take all actions that are not required under law or under our Articles of Association to be exercised or taken by our shareholders, including the power to borrow money for company purposes.
Our Articles of Association enable us to increase or reduce our share capital. Any such changes are subject to the provisions of the Israeli Companies Law and must be approved by a resolution duly passed by our shareholders at a general or special meeting by voting on such change in the capital. In addition, transactions that have the effect of reducing capital, such as the declaration and payment of dividends in the absence of sufficient retained earnings and profits and an issuance of shares for less than their nominal value, require a resolution of our Board of Directors and court approval.
We may declare a dividend to be paid to the holders of our ordinary shares in proportion to their respective shareholdings. Under the Israeli Companies Law, dividend distributions are determined by the board of directors and do not require the approval of the shareholders of a company unless such company’s articles of association provide otherwise. Our Articles of Association do not require shareholder approval of a dividend distribution and provide that dividend distributions may be determined by our Board of Directors.
Pursuant to the Israeli Companies Law, we may only distribute dividends from our profits accrued over the previous two years, as defined in the Israeli Companies Law, according to our then last reviewed or audited financial reports, or we may distribute dividends with court approval. In each case, we are only permitted to pay a dividend if there is no reasonable concern that payment of the dividend will prevent us from satisfying our existing and foreseeable obligations as they become due.
Election of Directors
Our ordinary shares do not have cumulative voting rights in the election of directors. As a result, the holders of a majority of the voting power represented at a shareholders meeting have the power to elect all of our directors, subject to the special approval requirements for external directors described under “Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees — Board Practices — External Directors.”
Pursuant to our Articles of Association, other than the external directors, for whom special election requirements apply under the Israeli Companies Law, our directors are elected at a general or special meeting of our shareholders and serve on the Board of Directors until the end of the next general meeting or they are removed by the majority of our shareholders at a general or special meeting of our shareholders or upon the occurrence of certain events, in accordance with the Israeli Companies Law and our Articles of Association. In addition, our Articles of Association allow our Board of Directors to appoint directors to fill vacancies on the Board of Directors to serve until the next general meeting or special meeting, or earlier if required by our Articles of Association or applicable law. We have held elections for each of our non-external directors at each annual meeting of our shareholders since our initial public offering in Israel. External directors are elected for an initial term of three years and may be removed from office pursuant to the terms of the Israeli Companies Law. See “Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees — Board Practices — External Directors.”
Under Israeli law, we are required to hold an annual general meeting of our shareholders once every calendar year that must be no later than 15 months after the date of the previous annual general meeting. All meetings other than the annual general meeting of shareholders are referred to as special meetings. Our Board of Directors may call special meetings whenever it sees fit, at such time and place, within or outside of Israel, as it may determine. In addition, the Israeli Companies Law and our Articles of Association provide that our Board of Directors is required to convene a special meeting upon the written request of (i) any two of our directors or one quarter of our Board of Directors or (ii) one or more shareholders holding, in the aggregate, either (1) 5% of our outstanding shares and 1% of our outstanding voting power or (2) 5% of our outstanding voting power.
Subject to the provisions of the Israeli Companies Law and the regulations promulgated thereunder, shareholders entitled to participate and vote at general meetings are the shareholders of record on a date to be decided by the board of directors, which may be between four and forty days prior to the date of the meeting. Furthermore, the Israeli Companies Law and our Articles of Association require that resolutions regarding the following matters must be passed at a general meeting of our shareholders:
|·||amendments to our Articles of Association;|
|·||appointment or termination of our auditors;|
|·||appointment of directors and appointment and dismissal of external directors;|
|·||approval of acts and transactions requiring general meeting approval pursuant to the Israeli Companies Law;|
|·||director compensation, indemnification and change of the principal executive officer;|